Ethical theories are philosophical concepts put in place to help justify and evaluate the morality of human actions. These ethics are seen as fundamental principles for decent human conduct when deciding what is right and wrong. Two of the most well known ethical theories are Kantian Ethics and Utilitarianism. Kantian ethics defines morality based on an individual’s rationality and self-control (Warburton pg: 38). Where as Utilitarianism defines morality based upon the ability to express pleasure and avoid pain (Warburton pg:47)
Kantian ethics is categorized as a duty-based theory (Warburton pg: 39). Emmanuel Kant, the founder of this ethical theory descried moral judgment as one based upon a sense of duty. What Kant meant by this was that …show more content…
For instance when considering what is the best possible action, Kantian ethics specifically states that one should act on a sense of duty. For example a murderer is looking for a family member and you know their where about. If the murderer were to ask you for their location would you listen to the categorical imperative, which states that one should not tell a lie and give the murderer the information, or act from your sense of duty to protect your family member (Warburton pg: 44). What would be the right thing to do in this situation?
When facing ethical dilemmas regardless of how serious they may be, Kantian ethics sets nonnegotiable guidelines, which can be an advantage as they are very direct. However, the lack of consideration for difficult situations has to be the biggest disadvantage for adopting Kantian ethics (Warburton pg: 45).
In comparison to Kantian ethics, Utilitarianism gives greater perspective to difficult situations and factors in consequences (Warburton pg: 47). While Kantian ethics deals with the question of what is right and wrong from the standpoint of duty, Utilitarianism view the question from the standpoint of what generates the greatest overall amount of happiness (Warburton pg:
The divine command theory, utilitarianism, Kant’s duty defined morality, natural law theory, and Aristotle’s virtue ethics are the five types of ethical theories. The divine command theory states that what is morally right and wrong will be decided by God. Utilitarianism states that “Action “A” is morally right if and only if it produces the greatest amount of overall happiness. Kant’s duty defined morality states that what is important is acting for the sake of producing good consequences, no matter what the act is. Natural law theory states that people should focus on the good and avoid any evil.
For Kant, his ethics are grounded on reason and pure reason alone. It is a matter of a priori vs a posteriori. A priori is knowing the truth of the judgement, regardless of empirical view. An example of a priori would be that a single
Developing from the reasoning of (Russ Shafer-Landau, p.p 13), it is clear that there is a difference between normative ethics and metaethics. Normative ethics are those values that develop from within a personality and are always employed whenever ethics are breached. On the other hand the metaethics is basically the diverse elements that are considered crucial for building positive ethical believes. (Shafer-Landau, p.p 29), also brings forward other moral ethical elements such as the moral error theory, the desire-satisfaction theory, ethical particularism and the doctrine of double effects. All the above elements are crucial for shaping ones ethical perspectives and inclinations leave alone resolving ethical issues within a society.
Explain the ethical theory of Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, or Immanuel Kant, primarily concerning morality and justice. Include contextual/background factors that shaped the theory. Also, tell why you agree or disagree with it, providing a present-day illustration to support your position. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher in Eighteenth-century who presented the Theory of perception. Kant has been a central figure in modern Ethics and has influenced subjects like Metaphysics, Epistemology, ethics, political theory and aesthetics.
Kant also thought it was possible for pure reason to discover objective ethical truths. Kant believed that ethical truths must be categorical, universal, and be the product of reason. Kant’s categorical imperative states that a person should always act in such a way that they could will that act should be a universal law. This means that Kant thought that it was best to do the right thing, even if the person didn’t want to. This view of ethics focuses on what is right to do.
Although I believe in doing what is morally right, all situations and scenarios aren’t the same. What if we are faced with another war, Kantians would think it would be wrong to murder no matter the circumstance which would jeopardize our entire country. The problem with the Utilitarian approach is its too relative. Morals would be a thing of the past and people would take the law into their own hands. This view allows much room for selfishness as people could feel it would be fine to kill someone if others don’t like the person
Kant moral philosophy defines the need for moral law, categorical imperatives a means to the end. The categorical imperative are based on an action not done with motive of duty, then it has no moral value. Mrs. Berranger asked that you conduct research on 1 of the following philosophers who studied personal ethics and moral
The final ethical theory is Kant’s deontology. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who admire the stoics for their dedication to performing their duties and playing their part. He based his theory on duties, obligations, and rights. Its main focus is that everyone has an inherited right. It highlights the importance of respecting a person autonomy.
The Kantian Ethics is a duty-based theory, meaning we will choose who we should choose because it is what we should do and is morally right action in accordance with the categorical imperative. The categorical imperative is extremely important when it comes to deciding what choice is morally correct and deciding what our duty is to do. The Kantian Ethics expresses that we should treat every single person with dignity and worth and as if it they were ourselves. Our choice of which ten we should choose under Kantian ethics influence would be very difficult because if we put ourselves in their positions and try to see every single person with dignity and the same worth it would be impossible to make a decision of whom to save. It is clear that duty plays an important and central part in Kantian ethics because without it our choice may otherwise not be justified.
Hyejin Jang Professor Writing DED 8 April 2016. 4. 7. Kant’s ethics differs from utilitarian ethics both in its scope and in the precision with which it guides action. In The Categorical Imperative, Kant emphasizes that human autonomy is the essence of morality.
Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are two of the most notable philosophers in normative ethics. This branch of ethics is based on moral standards that determine what is considered morally right and wrong. This paper will focus on Immanuel Kant’s theory of deontology and J.S. Mill’s theory of utilitarianism. While Mill takes a consequentialist approach, focused on the belief that actions are right if they are for the benefit of a majority, Kant is solely concerned with the nature of duty and obligation, regardless of the outcome. This paper will also reveal that Kantian ethics, in my opinion, is a better moral law to follow compared to the utilitarian position.
Throughout history many great philosophers have attempted to unravel the origins of virtues by developing moral theories of their own. This document is designed to provide the reader with an overview of some of the more popular theories concerning morals. Three of the most popular moral theories are… Utilitarianism, Kantianism, and Aristotelianism. Though Utilitarianism, Kantianism, and Aristotelianism differ in many ways, they also share similar fundamentals. Utilitarianism is a highly acclaimed theory that is morally based on consequentialism.
Generally, ethics is defined as the rule for carrying out certain behaviors by distinguishing between acceptable and unacceptable behavior (Resnik, 2015). In other words, ethics assists in determining whether a decision is right or wrong when given a choice. As a matter of course, decision-making is first predisposed by personal ethic that is constructed on personal experience and conscience (Fritzsche & Oz, 2007) . It tends to be affected by family and friends (Ferrell & Gresham, 1985). Not only does personal ethics guide human behavior but also social ethics (Shaw, 2002).
When it comes to ethics we follow utilitarianism. Utilitarianism offers a relatively straightforward method for deciding the morally right course of action for any particular situation we may find ourselves in. To discover what we ought to do in any situation, we first identify the various courses of action that we could perform. Second, we determine all of the foreseeable benefits and harms that would result from each course of action for everyone affected by the action. And third, we choose the course of action that provides the greatest benefits after the costs have been taken into account.
These theories challenge what an individual think is right and wrong. Some of ethical theories are given in detail below. • Utilitarianism: Utilitarian ethical theories are based on person’s ability to foretell the reaction of a particular action. It is part of a normative ethics that is the study of ethical actions or ethics