Contextualizing the Concept of Diversity: This section discusses the concept of diversity through contemporary narratives and the legal definitions of diversity in the U.S. and India. "Diversity" as a concept in both countries has been interpreted in contexts of their history, constitutional reference, sociopolitical scenario, and demographic composition. In the U.S., the concept of diversity represents racial and cultural differences; diversity has been perceived, translated, and practiced as "differences" in race/ethnicity and social identities (Ghosh, 2012). Further, diversity in the context of social identity emphasizes historically marginalized social groups such as African American, Hispanic, and Native American.
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Asian and Pacific Islander) students. In the twenty-first century, this is a critical question - why after fifty years of the Civil Rights Act (1964), access to a college education among minority students is low? Affirmative action in the U.S. has been an important instrument to offer representation and protection to the underrepresented students in higher education. Advocates of affirmative action argue that race is still a factor in the U.S., which determines socioeconomic status and access to higher education. Why then, should race not be a criterion in the college admission process? However, some states' court rulings and referenda banned race-based admission and financial aid to the underrepresented student groups in public universities. These court judgments and majority (whites) domination disregard the purpose of affirmative action and social justice spirit, thereby impeding access to college education by underrepresented students (The Chronicle of Higher Education, …show more content…
Therefore, private sector employers and large corporations increasingly seek out a diverse workforce that has the ability to adapt to different international contexts and work cultures. Diversity enhancement therefore has acquired a strategic importance for both public and private educational institutions in the U.S. The U.S. government also recognized a strategic significance and population dividend to foster institutional diversity. During Obama administration, the federal government issued an Executive Order 13583 in 2011, to encourage equity, diversity and inclusion in public institutions. The order is explicit about eliminating all forms of discrimination, barriers, fostering institutional diversity, enhancing the representation of underrepresented groups, awareness programs, institutional support, and accountability to implement the order. The next section discusses caste in Indian higher education, literature on diversity discourse and campus climate research in the U.S. higher education
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Also in evaluating an applicant; which factors are appropriate to consider? Can race be considered as a factor in the admissions process? THE COURT HELD The Supreme Court declared that University of California, Davis Medical School’s special admissions program is
The U.S. Supreme Court Case Regents of the University of California v. Allan Bakke was officially decided June 28, 1978. The case addressed the issue of use of affirmative action in university admissions processes. Affirmative action, also referred to as positive discrimination, was a result of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, and was intended to ensure equal entry to educational institutions or employment entities to certain groups that “have historically suffered invidious discrimination” (Janda et al., 477). However, sometimes this method causes discrimination of other groups, through establishment of racial quotas. University of California employed the process of affirmative action and instituted racial quotas in its admissions
The Supreme Court made a mistake when they decided with the University of Texas; no college should take in race as a factor when selecting applications of students. In 2007, two female high school students applied to the University of Texas; one of the girls being Miss Abigail N. Fisher. Abigail was a caucasian, in the top 12% of her school at Stephen Austin High School, but she was denied by the University of Texas along with a friend of her’s. However,
Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States founded primarily for the education of African Americans. Prior to the mid-1960s, HBCUs were virtually the only institutions open to African Americans due to the vast majority of predominantly white institutions prohibiting qualified African Americans from acceptance during the time of segregation. As such, they are institutional products of an era of discrimination and socially constructed racism against African Americans (Joseph, 2013). Successfully, millions of students have been educated in spite of limited resources, public contempt, accreditation violations, and legislative issues. The purpose of this research paper is to discuss
In the article, “The Truth about ‘holistic College Admissions”, Sara Harberson expresses how universities that are not allowed to use racial preferences on college admissions, are still devising strategies to work around the laws to produce the same result. Harberson states how the institutions are using what is called “holistic admissions”, which allows a college to factor in a student's background, race and income. By filtering out the minority groups, they are creating a less-diverse community, preventing students of certain backgrounds from a proper education, and taking away opportunities from students based on their ethnicity. Colleges are using racial segregation in the admission process so that they can have a white-favoring campus
This law also ensures diversity on campus, and on top of that affirmative action is still used for the remaining students that are not at the top 10% of their class (Hung). Evidently, race plays a crucial role in the admission decisions. Hung claims that race shouldn’t play such a big role in the admission process because it is considered discrimination. He supports this argument by comparing the average GPA and SAT scores of those students that were granted admission but were not in the top 10 percent of their class. African Americans had the lowest averaged scores, followed by Hispanics, then whites, and then Asian Americans.
The Supreme Court case of The Regents of the University of California versus Bakke questioned the use of affirmative action in applications. The medical school of the University of California at Davis reserved sixteen out of one hundred seats of every entering class for minorities (Blacks, Chicanos, Asians, and American Indians) (Banfield pg.82). Allan Bakke a white male in his mid-thirties was twice denied access to the University strictly based on quotas, although Bakke had MCAT scores and GPA higher than other minority applicants admitted (McBride par.3). Bakke would later sue The University of California on the basis that the school had violated the civil rights act of 1964.
Is affirmative action still necessary for guaranteeing equal access to educational opportunities at elite universities and graduate schools? Should admissions decisions be based solely on academic criteria and merit? Key Words: affirmative action, Grutter V. Bollinger, and diversity. Grutter V. Bollinger Research Paper 3 Affirmative Action in Education Affirmative action was formed more than fifty years ago.
Another thing that places students of color at a disadvantage in college admissions is the persisting cultural bias in high-stakes testing. “High-stakes” tests are those that are tied to major consequences, such as admission to college, or even high school graduation. Fair education reform advocates have long been citing an extensive record of standardized testing concerns, many of which relate to racial bias and discrimination. As researcher and author Harold Berlak explains in the journal Rethinking Education: Standardized testing perpetuates institutionalized racism and contributes to the achievement gap between whites and minorities. For instance, the deeply embedded stereotype that African Americans perform poorly on standardized tests
In his article “Affirmative Action in Higher Education: Is It Necessary?” , Rodney Reed debates the necessity of affirmative action as a critical measure in the fight against discrimination in higher education. In order to stress this conviction, he does not eschew the usage of strongly biased diction and argument. Firstly, on page 333 Reed states that “in [his] view, affirmative action is a series of positive steps” and that “[his] concern is with Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans”, where he does not conceal that this is his perspective and not necessarily the truth.
One reason the opposition side of this argument argues that minority scholarships are fair is because, the scholarships are not always distributed by college institutions. Countless organizations, corporations, associations, and minority advocacy groups will offer scholarships to minorities (Minority Scholarships). These groups have every right to give out their money to whoever they would like, but that is not what the debate in this paper is about. The argument is against college institutions giving out the low requirement minority scholarships. If students can get different groups to give them money for school, that is nobody 's business but themselves.
Throughout many of the affirmative action legal cases, one of the main arguments from proponents is that it is necessary in order to right the wrongs of past racial discrimination. Some say that affirmative action is justified because even though white applicants may be more qualified, this is only because they did not face the same hardships as their minority counterparts (Rachels, Ethics, 1973). Many argue if we do not integrate disadvantaged minorities into mainstream social institutions, they will continue to suffer the discrimination that has plagued our country for centuries and that this is detrimental to not only the minorities but also society as a whole (Anderson, 2002, 1270–71). However, the debate has recently shifted to the benefits of diversity in the classroom which the Supreme Court has affirmed as being a positive thing
A new study may bring up arguments that the average test scores of African-American students trail those of white students not just because of economic disadvantages, but because some parts of the test result in differential scores by race for students of equal academic prowess. "The confirmation of unfair test results throws into question the validity of the test and, consequently, all decisions based on its results. “All admissions decisions based exclusively or predominantly on SAT performance—and therefore access to higher education institutions and subsequent job placement and professional success—appear to be biased against the African American minority group and could be exposed to legal challenge," says the study, which has just appeared in Harvard Educational Review.” (Jaschik) The presence of racial patterns on the SAT is not new.
Diversity may mean different things to different people. To me, diversity is exactly that, being different and unique. Diversity makes the world a beautiful place to be, and full of interesting and different people. The beauty of human civilization lies in its diverse groups and cultures.
According to the dominant theory the affirmative action was firstly introduced to deal with two types of social disruption in the 1960s as campus protests and urban riots in the North. However, this article is based on different theory as dominant theory's empirical evidence is limited. It examines the initial reason for advent of race-conscious affirmative action in 17 undergraduate institutions in the United States. And according to the research this article concludes that there were two waves that contributed to affirmative action: 1) first wave in the early 1960s introduced by northern college administrators 2) second wave in the late 1960s introduced as a response to the protests of campus-based students. This article will help me to establish the main reasons for introduction of race-conscious affirmative action in undergraduate