DNA in Forensic Science DNA is the carrier of genetic information in humans and other living organisms. It has become a very useful tool in forensic science since it was discovered. In forensic science, DNA testing is used to compare the genetic structure of two individuals to establish whether there is a genetic relationship between them. One example of the use of DNA in forensic science that is important in biology today is comparing a suspect’s DNA profile to DNA that was discovered at a crime scene. This can be done by DNA fingerprinting or by collection of body fluids, such as saliva, semen, urine, blood, skin and hair, found at the scene. Secondly, DNA testing can rule out possible suspects as well. DNA testing can be used to free individuals …show more content…
These microscopic organisms include bacteria and archaea. Population evolution in microbial life refers to the change that occurs in the microscopic organism populations over a SC160 Basic Biology Assignment 08 period of time. Evolution of microbial life is used in science and research for researching and studying diseases caused by the evolving microorganisms. This information is used by scientists to research and develop with medications to fight these diseases. Population evolution and microbial life are presented in the following examples. First, the evolution of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which has led to the resistance to some antiretroviral medications. Second, the H1N1 flu virus is a disease which was nicknamed the swine flu because the virus that causes the disease originated from live pigs, which is where it evolved. (DeNoon and Hitti). Lastly is the evolution of MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). MRSA is a bacterium that is responsible for various infections in humans that are difficult to treat due to its development of a resistance to common antibiotics. MRSA is very common in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes. Biological Diversity …show more content…
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new species are formed. This process is responsible for species diversity over geologic time. Another example of biodiversity evolution is genetic biodiversity. Genetic biodiversity is the variation of the genes that exist within a specific species. Maintaining a genetic diversity gives the population protection against change, which allows it to evolve and adapt to a new environment. The last example is ecological biodiversity, which is the variation in SC160 Basic Biology Assignment 08 the ecosystems that are found in a region or the whole planet. We see this type of biodiversity evolution all around us. For example, the forest of Maine versus the forests of Colorado. Plant and Animal
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
Stories about the use of DNA evidence to convict offenders or exonerate defendants in criminal cases have become increasingly common in the recent years. Forensic DNA technology is transforming the way law enforcement officers investigate crimes, especially violent ones. DNA has an extremely important role in criminal trials due to its power of exoneration of innocent individuals. Many wrongfully convicted individuals, but later exonerated by DNA evidence, falsely confessed or made an incriminating statement. This can be seen in the Earl Washington case as presented by Frontline.
Forensic hair examinations are most frequently conducted to assist investigation and prosecution of crimes of violence such as murders and sexual assaults. Although the probative value of hair comparison is generally much lower than that of some other forms of forensic evidence such as fingerprints or DNA, it can still provide good corroborative evidence. Hair comparison can help establish associations between any combinations of the following: accused, victim, crime scene or weapon. There is a consensus that hair examination can yield reliable information about class characteristics of hair strands. Experts can identify major as well as secondary characteristics.
Microorganisms are everywhere; organisms that are so small to be seen with the human eye cover the entire planet, including humans. Some of these microbes help with digestion of food other actually protect humans and other organisms from harm. Some however are deadly. Botulism for example is a deadly assassin hiding until the time is right to strike. Botulism is so good at its job that it can be easily misdiagnosed as other medical disorders.
When a crime is committed there are multiple ways investigators can gather their evidence. Testimonies, direct evidence, circumstantial, and even physical evidence; theses are all different yet effective types of evidence investigators can use. Although none of these methods are incorrect ways of collecting evidence, in “Forensic: Evidence, Clues, and Investigation” by Andrea Campbell, she states that forensic evidence is the most important and useful. Forensic evidence and physical evidence are the same thing. It is the physical characteristics of someone or something that has been left behind and can be traced back to them.
Methicillin was originally introduced in 1959 to combat infections that were caused by PRSA otherwise known as Penicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. During 1961 it was discovered in the United Kingdom that Staphylococcus Aureus had mutated to become resistant to methicillin. This bacteria was now called MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus). MRSA was soon known to have spread or developed in other countries such as Japan, Australia, United States and some countries within mainland Europe. MRSA today has spread into many countries and becoming more infectious within hospitals, which as previously mentioned, are perfect breeding grounds for
In the case containing the husband who started a house fire to kill his wife and ended up saving her becoming a hero then later on murdering her by striking her in the head with a hammer. The forensics team used the following; Integrated automated fingerprint identification system used to analyze the hammer found in the vehicle under the seat compartment. They analysed it and found his identity on it.
“Every two and a half minutes, someone is sexually assaulted in the United Sates” (Hansen, 2011). With the crime of sexual assault, the victim’s body becomes part of a crime scene. When the victim reports the assault to the police, the person is taken to a hospital or crisis center. “At the hospital most of these victims consent to the collection of physical evidence from their bodies, or a ‘rape kit’ (Nat.
The use of the scientific method is something that has traveled the world giving new thoughts towards identifying and implementing the works of the scientific truth. However, its work does not support anything with dealings of the scientific method. In no way, shape form or fashion can any individual identify or discover any forensic information using the scientific method. The newly modified version named, the forensic science method, gathers information secured by investigators which varies from findings at the crime scene to observable proof. The information found provides verification of the witnesses’ story being either the truth or a lie.
All of these changes have required animals to adapt and change at a rather fast pace. The organisms that couldn’t adapt to this change die off and the stronger organisms breed to make the species stronger and create a new trait. Examples of these changes would be species migrating, reproducing more or developing faster. Some physical changes include longer necks wider wingspan thicker or thinner fur depending on the climate in the
Firstly visual examination and presumptive testing were conducted to determine the state of evidence and whether the sample contained any useful information in a forensic sense. Throughout this process biological samples of bloodstains, semen and saliva were screened. Throughout this visual examination and presumptive test stage a small amount of semen was found on the underwear found at the crime scene. Also on all the evidence items small amounts of bloodstains were identified to positive presumptive testing results, these were extracted with Chelex® DNA extraction.
GEH1043 – Microbes which Changed Human History Student Assignment Question 1 a) Why would microbes cause harm to their host, which would unavoidably cause their death with the host? Some might wonder what are microbes and what harm something so small can possibly entail? Microbes are singled-cell living things that are not visible to the naked eye. In a study conducted, it was found that there are 40 trillion bacteria in the human body, as compared to 30 trillion human cells.
Diego Villalobos Erives Marlo Willows Physical anthropology How does evolutionary change occur in populations? What are the processes of evolution and how do they work? Evolutionary change occurs in the population when it merges with another population that may have different straight suited to the environment or place that the population lives in it can be very positive because inn some cases a generation many not have an immunity to a sickness or infection virus or bacteria but the next generation will because they have adapted the their surroundings another benefit of evolutionary change is that many other chronic illnesses that are in other generation have dissipated because when population evolve they will have less of a rate of chronic
Anything that can be used in a court of law is referred to as forensics. Forensics can be any scientific test that can prove a connection to a crime. The information obtained in any test must be admissible in a court of law. There are many branches of forensic sciences; one branch that is not well known is forensic radiography, or forensic imaging. “Conducting examinations that use ionizing radiation to gather and analyze forensic evidence constitutes forensic radiography” (ASRT. (2010).).
ODUCTION BY: SIMANG CHAMPRAMARY Microbiota is the community of organism that dwells at different sites in the human body. There are billions of different organisms but the only known communities which could be identified are Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, ProteobacteriaandVerrucomicrobia. They are important to us because: • They are responsible in providing us with necessary vitamins • Digesting oligosaccharides • Training our immune system and inhibiting pathogenic organisms The presence of various community of microbes are shaped by: • Mode of delivery in birth: children born in normal delivery mode will have different community of microbes compared to children born with C-section.
Divergent evolution is the process in which two species evolve from one common ancestor, in this case speciation. Whereas, convergent evolution is when two different species evolve into two very similar species. A common example of divergent evolution is the successful process of speciation when two species live among each other even though they originated from the same species. On the other hand, a failed process of speciation is an example of convergent evolution because now throughout many generations, the two different species will become one as they mate and produce more similar offspring each year. Both convergent and divergent evolution involve changes in species which result in a new species.