1. World War I was caused by aggressive nationalism, military power and imperialism. The large military alliances and navy and arms race also contributed to World War I. But the key event that caused the First World War was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914. And then a very destructive war broke out in 1914.
The efforts of nationalism, imperialism and militarism was the instant result of World War I. The feelings of nationalism were high and were especially strong against Austria- Hungary which had seeked to seize constriction of land in the unstable Balkans in southeastern Europe. Also, imperialism created tension within Europe.” Militarism indicated increase in military expenses and naval forces, more of the military men upon the policies of civilian government, and a preference for force as a solution to issues” ( u.arizona.edu).
Main Causes of World War One Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, and Alliances helped to not only begin World War One, but also to propel it forward and fuel the fire that kept the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente, later referred to as the Central Powers and the Allies, in ongoing battles. Several events went down in order to instigate the beginning of this war, including the demands Austria-Hungary made of Serbia, the steadily increasing prices of war, and the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand which finally pushed it over the edge and was the leading cause in the outbreak of World War One. Even though there were many other causes, Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, and Alliances were definitely the main leading causes. Nationalism was only one of the four main motives that helped World War One begin. The document reprinted from “The Origins of the First World War” by James Joll states, “Our whole race must stand together to halt the onslaught of these aliens from the North.”
Serbia threatened Austria-Hungary with war, Russia, allied to Serbia, mobilized its forces. Germany, allied to Austria-Hungary mobilised its forces and prepared to threaten Russia. War was avoided when Russia backed down. There was, however, war in the Balkans between 1911- 1912 when the Balkan states drove Turkey out of the area. The states then fought each other over which area should belong to which state.
With the uprising of Germany, and the beginning of submarine warfare, the Allies used “tactical and technical innovation” (pg 62) to gain a victory against the Japanese Navy, further elaborating on Overy’s more than combat outlook. In chapter three, we see wars becoming more intense. Hitler made the decision to attack Russia over Britain because he did not want to make enemies with Britain, and with Russia he had a greater chance of the outcome ending in his favor. With the Battle of Kursk, the Russian submarine’s success became, according to Overy, “the most important single victory of the war” (pg. 96). This was because the Soviets had located themselves perfectly to where, if the Axis powers were to attack, they would have been clearly visible.
As the expansion of the war advanced, countries within Europe made mutual defense agreements that would drag them into battle. The main mutual defense allies were Russia and Serbia, Germany and Austria-Hungary, France and Russia, Britain and France and lastly, Belgium, Japan and Britain. Once Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia got embroiled to defend their Slavic ally. Germany, who was allied with Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia as they saw them mobilize. France and Britain were then dragged into the war after Germany wanted to invade France through Belgium, this was known as the Schlieffen plan.
Militarism is the policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war. The military defeats before World War I such as Russia’ defeat by Japan (Russo-Japanese War), France’s defeat by Germany (Franco Prussian War) and even costly victories such as the Boer War increased the calls for improvement of military. People wanted stronger military and arms. A powerful military, at that time, means manifestation for nations and imperial strength. It could protect homeland, deter threats and guarantee trade routes and interest.
Why did World War One Start? The events of the first world war started because of the build up of tension between the Great powers. Tension between the Great Powers were created because of four main reasons: Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism Militarism In 1805, Britain defeated the French in the battle of Trafalgar and was confirmed as having the world’s greatest navy. But nearly one hundred years later, in 1898, the German Kaiser (Wilhelm) announced that Germany was going to build 41 battleships and 61 cruisers, rivaling that of Britain.
Firstly, one of the predominant reasons why one would suspect Germany prompted The Great War is due to the decisions made by the German Emperor who ruled from 1888 to 1914, Kaiser Wilhelm II. Driven by the desire to transform Germany into a global power, the Kaiser Wilhelm II and Admiral Alfred Von Tirpitz started expanding Germany’s navy on the basis of the Kaiser’s Foreign Policy, “Weltpolitik”, during 1898 - 1912, which ensued the notorious Anglo - German Naval Arms Race. At that time, Britain’s navy was the largest, so in doing so, the Kaiser Wilhelm II furthered the tensions and the resentment between the British and the Germans as it posed a major threat to the British supply
WALZER ON SUPREME EMERGENCY Michael Walzer, otherwise a strict adherent to the satisfaction of just in bello conditions in war, especially to the condition of non-combatant immunity, argues that in supreme emergencies, a state actor can infringe upon this principle and directly target enemy civilians’ (SCHWENKENBECHER 2009). What is a supreme emergency? According to Michael Walzer it is: ‘… an ultimate threat to everything decent in our lives, an ideology and a practice of domination so murderous, so degrading even to those who might survive, that the consequences of its final victory were literally beyond calculation, immeasurably awful.’ (SCHWENKENBECHER 2009)Hence, a supreme emergency is an exceptional and threatening situation that collectives
Through the first great war two of the allies, Britain and France while allies in the war held onto their stark rivalry. Britain’s front on the war quickly developed into a stalemate due to Germany’s well developed technology and the Ottoman empire 's vast size and availability to resources. Due to the incorrect prediction that the war would end by 1914 Britain 's prime minister, Asquith decided that expanding the war and thus straining the central powers resources and men would be the correct course of action to end the world war. This secret plan to “strike the underbelly”(Turkey) of the Central Powers began by a dealing between Britain, France and Russia to unite in order to undermine the Ottoman empire.
There were a variety of underlying causes in World War I. They were militarism, alliances, nationalism, and a mix of imperialism. Before the war Nations started to build up their arms (DBQ: What Were the Underlying Causes of World War 1, 2010, Doc 7) making a competition for dominance, and alliances are formed making powerful armies. Nations produced propaganda infuriating the citizens and giving the pride in their nation which led to nationalism. Nationalism is a patriotic feeling for your nation, causing new literature relating to the war, for example this poem “When Britain first at Heaven's command Arose from out the azure Main; This was the charter of the land, And guardian angels sand this strain;...
Causes of World War I World War I was the bar fight of all bar fights and was expected to end quickly. Unfortunately, the treacherous battle field held soldier's longer than expected. At first, Europe had been flourishing with colonies worldwide and had developed in technology greatly.
Many factors played into the start of World War I like nationalism, the arms race, the lack of balance of power, Sebians assassinating the Archduke of Austria-Hungary, and alliances, but there is one big cause you can argue that started the war. Tension between and within countries caused leaders of the countries and groups to spark rebellions of the groups, and one thing after another a World War was on their hands. Germany's tensions between France and Russia started alliances. Serbia had sparked the first rebellion by trying to gain independence from the mother country Austria. Europe was thought to be in a strong position, but at the end of 1918 the position was reduced.