One main issue with regard to a regressive tax system is that it limits the chance of people in the lower income group to purchase expensive and exquisite goods as they are priced and taxed in a very high rate. Besides, when a regressive tax is based on consumption such as a sales tax, it can introduce an element of freedom of choice. Only those who choose to use a particular product or service must pay the tax, and those who consume more frequently pay more taxes than occasional users. People also have some measure of control of how much they pay in taxes. If they wish to lower what they pay in taxes, they can elect to cut back on or discontinue the use of an item.
Cetane Number The cetane number of a diesel fuel is the numerical result of engine test designed to evaluate fuel ignition delay. It is defined as the whole number nearest to the value determined by calculation from percentage by volume of normal cetane (cetane No. = 100) in a blend with heptamethylnonane (cetane No. = 15) which matches the ignition quality of the test fuel when compared by this method. High cetane number fuels generally cause lower combustion noise, improved control of combustion, resulting in increased engine efficiency and power output.
Determination of ΔH and ΔS Using the plot of lnKsp versus 1/T, the slope of the best-fit equation and the y-intercept was found. Using van’t Hoff equation, the change in enthalpy ΔH and entropy ΔS of the dissolution reaction was found to be 44 ± 1.3 kJ K-1 mol-1 and 89 ± 4 J K-1 mol-1 respectively. Using van’t Hoff equation, lnK = - (ΔH°reaction)/RT + (ΔS°reaction)/R where ΔH°reaction and ΔS°reaction ¬are the standard enthalpy and entropy change of the reaction respectively. From Figure 1, the gradient and y-intercept was obtained as shown in Table 4 in the Appendix. The enthalpy change and entropy change was then calculated.
It will decrease sales and increase customer complaints, returns etc. Further our customer will move to other competitors due to bad quality products and especially perishable products such as fruits and vegetables. Therefore it is important to curry out Supplier audits to identify suppliers who can provide us with quality, fresh products. 4.5 Further to above risks, Fruito has been purchased from unauthorized suppliers which has poor quality and high price rate. When Fruito purchased from theses unauthorized suppliers, the Company increases cost of purchase and unable to provide products for reasonable rates for our customers.
More so, consumers may become addicted to their desires in the purchasing of a product, which only alienates them from better products that may actually improve their lives. Marx’s theory of commodity fetishism defines the dangers of a capitalist society that is controlled a by a small group of bourgeoisie owners that seek profit through a narrow selection of products. More so, consumers are often unaware of the dangers of these products and the addictive properties of a commodity that dominate their lives. In this manner, a sociological analysis of Karl Marx’s commodity fetishism has been analyzed within the problematic issues of an American consumer
2.3 The Investment Model The investment model originates from the interdependence theory where the key concept is dependence. Sung and Campbell (2007, p. 100) state “Interdependence theory suggests that dependence is greater to the degree that a relationship provides positive outcomes (for example satisfaction) and to the degree that the outcomes available in alternative relationships are poor.” The investment model further expands the concept of the interdependence theory in two ways. First, the investment model states that satisfaction level, quality of alternatives and investment size are three bases for dependence, and secondly, the theory further asserts that these three bases for dependence produce what Sung and Campbell (2007, p. 100)
Regulations that the government implement, licensing for example, increases the barrier of entry into the market and decreases ways for the traders to gratify consumer demand. This case is prevalent in the monopoly market. The market is sometimes best to decide how much and what to produce since it has better information and knowledge of the consumers compared to the government. Economic decisions may also not be competent when the government is motivated by political power rather than economic imperatives. Sometimes, economic policies are designed to retain power rather than to ensure maximum efficiency in the economy.
Luxury products are not easily substitute as it is not an ordinary goods but the threat can derive from imitation. Counterfeit will lead consumers willing to pay lesser value as it is lower in price to try out low-quality of the brand before purchasing the authentic item. Additionally, leather goods product may also be substitute with lower grade of affordable brand. Therefore, the threat of substitute is high. The brands set different prices of its product base on design, size and heritage.
Bargaining Power of Buyers The level of bargaining power of buyers is moderate because one of the reason is Coles does not have much competitors to compete with.Their Consumers can switch brand easily because they are very sensitive to price and will compare and choose the cheapest alternative. However, the Federal Government and ACCC has set a restriction to lower down the competition barriers to allow new competitors to enter the market which will widen consumers choice and lead to increase of bargaining power of buyer level to high. Threat of Substitutes The level of threat of substitutes is high, this means that Coles has a lot of indirect competitors such as farmers’ markets, specialist grocery stores and convenience stores. These indirect competitors posed a serious threat to Coles. If a farmers’ markets were to expand in offering more variety of products, they would be able to compete directly with supermarkets.
This leaves plenty of products like beedi and ghutkas. >any feel like this creates a conflict of interest because it not only does not impact sales, but it makes it harder for people to distinguish products of differing *ualities which in turn slows down the progression of Indian consumers up the scale from harmful consumption to more refined forms. "ow my view is *uite uni*ue. I can understand both sides. 7ue to the fact that such a ban could actually lead to greater tobacco consumption among youth, I could see this turning out terribly.