Essay About Dams

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A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material built across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream side for impounding water for various purposes.
A dam and a reservoir are complements of each other.
Dams are generally constructed in the mountainous reach of the river where the valley is narrow and the foundation is good.
Generally, a hydropower station is also constructed at or near the dam site to develop hydropower.
Dams are probably the most important hydraulic structure built on the rivers. These are very huge structure and require huge money, manpower and time to construct.
Based on Materials of Construction
 Masonry dam
 Concrete dam
 Earth dam
 Rockfill dam
 Timber dam
 Steel dam
 Combined concrete-cum-earth dam
 Composite dam.
Based on Rigidity
 Rigid dams: A rigid dam is quite stiff. It is constructed of stiff materials such as concrete, masonry, steel and timber. These dams deflect and deform very little when subjected to water
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They are usually built in wide valleys having flat slopes at flanks (abutments). They can be homogeneous when the height of the dam is not great.
They are of zoned sections, with an impervious zone (called core) in the middle and relatively pervious zones (called shells or shoulders) enclosing the impervious zone on both sides.
Nowadays majority of dams constructed are of this type.
The highest dams of the world are earth dams (Rongunsky dam Rusia, 325 m and Nurek dam, Rusia, 317 m) as well as the largest capacity dams (New Cornelia dam, USA and Tarbela dam, Pakistan). ƒ
The highest dam of India is Tehri dam (261 m), which is earth and rockfill type. Hirakund dam (Orissa) is the longest earthen dam of the world (25.3 km).

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