Gravity dams depend on their weight in stability. However, low structures may be founded on alluvial foundations provided with adequate cutoffs. Spillway is a monolithic part of the dam as seen in Figure (2-3) . Figure (2-5) Gravity Dams 2- Arch Dam: A concrete arch dam is built at sites where the
A beam bridge is a very basic type of bridge. It is one large beam that is held by two abutments, one at each end. These two abutments take all of the pressure and weight that is being put on the bridge. Beam bridges need to be stiff and straight for them to work. If the bridge is not stiff enough, the whole bridge will bend and eventually break.
A pile foundation 2. Raft foundation 3. Combined raft and pile foundation The most common foundation selected for this structure was the raft foundation. This foundation is commonly known for its load distributing capability. And given the enormous load of this building.
Cofferdam: The word “cofferdam” comes from the word coffer meaning box. In other words, we could say a cofferdam is a dam shaped like a box. A cofferdam is a watertight structure designed to make construction projects in normally submerged regions easier. Such projects include bridges, piers and the repair works in oil platforms. A dam is placed in the area of the project and water is then removed from that area until the soil isn’t submerged by water.
A truss bridge is economical to construct owing to its efficient use of materials. FIG:2.1.2 2.1.3CANTILEVER BRIDGE Cantilever bridges are built using cantilevers—horizontal beams supported on only one end. Most cantilever bridges use a pair of continuous spans that extend from opposite sides of the supporting piers to meet at the center of the obstacle the bridge crosses. Cantilever bridges are constructed using much the same materials & techniques as beam bridges. The difference comes in the action of the forces through the bridge.
It is only need the water stops to resist the water from the backfill to pass through the vertical joints. For the retaining wall, all forces act on it are come from the backfill. Unlike the floodwall, hydraulic forces act as part of the loads hit on the wall and may become severe during the flood events. Generally, floodwall possesses a weak foundation condition as it is located in a flood plain, so the uplift forces act as the main reason to cause foundation instability. But, retaining wall does not encounter the weak foundation condition induced by flood
Pontoon’s uses buoyancy to support the bridge. It is important to take into consideration the Archimedes principle in obtaining the maximum load the bridge is intended to carry. Every pontoon can support a heap equivalent to the mass of the water that it displaces, however this load additionally incorporates the mass of the extension itself. On the off chance that the highest load of an extension segment is surpassed, one or more pontoon gets to be submerged and will continue to sink. The roadway over the pontoon should likewise have the capacity to bolster the load, yet be sufficiently light not to constrain their conveying
It is located between Cincinnati, Ohio and Covington, Kentucky, USA. It is a three span bridge with a length of 659meters, 7.6meters wide and 322meters long between the two towers. The bridge overtook Wheeling Suspension Bridge as the longest suspension bridge in the world after its opening. John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge holds the longest suspension bridge title for 16 years before being exceeded by one of his own designed bridge, The Brooklyn Bridge. The construction of the bridge began with the foundation of the towers which used square-sized heavy oak logs.
It chancels flowing water from the river to flow the turbines. It provides continuous supply of electricity. The flexibility of these plants are very low and operate as base load plant in Switzerland 2.) Storage hydroelectric power plant uses a dam to store water in a reservoir, usually the power plant is very big. In this type of power plant water is released from the reservoir through the turbines which turns the generator on.
Introduction of Hydraulics One of the most substantial systems used around the world when dealing with machinery is hydraulic systems. Hydraulic systems are used in a wide variety of applications from small types of machinery to massive complex assemblies. The word “Hydraulics” can be simply defined as the usage of a compressed or confined liquid to produce power, motion, or force. It is derived from the greek words “hydro” which means water, and “autos” which means pipe. “The basic idea behind any hydraulic system is very simple: Force that is applied at one point is transmitted to another point using an incompressible fluid.