It consists of 3 types of fibres; microtubules, intermediate filaments and micro filaments. It is a sturdy, dynamic 3D structure that fills the cytoplasm. The cytoskeleton has many functions including to provide structure to the cell and to allow the cell to change shape along with the intercellular movement of molecules. As the cytoskeleton is so big, it can easily change the shape of the cell by assembling and disassembling itself. Unlike other structures in the cell such as the ribosome the ratio of cytoskeletal proteins is not rigidly maintained allowing it to take on many shapes and to vary them easily.
The bone matrix is organised in to a three dimensional latticework of bony processes called trabeculae and are arranged along stress lines. Cancellous bones provide structural support and flexibility without the weight of a compact bone Cancellous tissue is highly vascular and frequently contains red bone marrow where the production of red blood cells occur , this is known as haematopoiesis. Cancellous bone can develop into compact bone through the action of bone forming cells, the osteoblasts. The osteoblasts deposit new bone matrix in layers around the trabeculae which enlarge at the expense of spaces between them. Eventually the spaces are eliminated and immature compact bone is produced.
The long bone is that it allows movement , particularly in the limbs eg the femur (thigh bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) humerus (upper arm bone), the radius and the ulna (lower arm). Metacarpals (hand bones) metersals (foot bone) and phalanges (finger and toe bone) Functions of the skeleton The skeleton is the framework of the body; it supports the softer tissue and provides point of attachment for most skeletal muscles. The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body’s internal organs, redusing risk of injury to them. Skeletal bones are attached to the muscle contract they cause bone to move, packed with over 200 bones, skeletons protect, shape support and move our bodies as well as producing red blood cells in the bone
These very different structures have the same function. The cytoskeleton of the eukaryote holds the cell together, and keeps the membrane from disintegrating. The cell wall in the prokaryote gives structure and support. Prokaryotes need the cell walls to give them shape, as they do not have a supporting skeleton on the inside (Jiskha Homework
Bone is one of the most important connective tissues found in the body. It is very intricate, complex and specialised. In addition to providing mechanical support, bone also acts as a reservoir for minerals, mainly calcium and phosphate. The tissue in itself is highly dynamic as it possesses a self-remodelling nature that allows the bone remodel itself depending upon the mechanical loading it encounters, moreover bone can also self-regenerate to a large extent that allows repairing of tissue without a scar. However, traumatic injuries and pathological conditions like osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, tumour and osteogenesis imperfecta can disrupt the functionality of healthy tissue which ultimately leads to immobility, fractures, deformity and severe pain.
The hip joint is the spot the most elevated purpose of the thighbone (femoral head) meets a bended part of the pelvis (the hip bone attachment). A smooth tissue of ligament covers the terminations of bones in a joint. Ligament cushions the bone and allows the joint to move easily without the disintegration that would go with bone-on-bone contact. A joint is encased by a stringy envelope, called the synovium, which makes a fluid that also reduces contact and wear in a joint. Ligaments interface the bones and keep the joint stable.
Explain how cells are important to tissues. Cells are important because cells are formed to make tissue. Another reason is cells in a tissue work together to do a specific job. 4. Synthesize how might the digestive system and the circulatory system work together?
The periosteum consists of an outer fibroblast layer and an inner osteogenetic layer (cambium layer). There are blood and lymph vessels and nerves in the periosteum and it plays a critical role in bone healing. In children, periosteum has greater osteogenic potential than in adults (), which allows children’s fractures to be treated more conservatively than adults’ fractures (). In children, the periosteum separates from the bone more easily than in adults (). The periosteum initiates fracture healing, producing new bone rapidly.
Eukaryotic cells contain many important organelles and without them the cell cannot function accurately. With organelles such as the nucleus which directs cell activity and contains DNA, ribosomes which make protein, the vacuole which is used for storage and in order for the cell to survive; the mitochondria. The mitochondria are often described as the energy powerhouse of the cell as organisms need energy to maintain homeostasis. The mitochondria are found in the cell cytoplasm and are double membrane enclosed organelles ‘which is best known for its critical function in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation, a pathway that generates many more ATP molecules per glucose molecules than glycolysis’ (John Wiley & sons, 2009) . Mitochondria
Bone is a rigid organ which resembles reinforced concrete. Its principle function is to resist mechanical forces and fractures. Collagen matrix and hydroxyapatite are critical in providing strength and elasticity along with other minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. Clinical disorders associated with bone fragility and bone collagen abnormalities lead to osteogenesis imperfecta. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized primarily by liability to fractures throughout life.