DIY - What Is Life?
How can you determine whether something is alive, dead, or non-living?
Whenever we speak of life, we must think in terms of cells. Even though we cannot see cells without a microscope, they are the basic unit of life and they exhibit all of the characteristics of living organisms. They can exist individually, as do bacteria, or they may work together, taking on specialized tasks to create a more complex organism. However, all living organisms share certain characteristics, which are discussed below.
Cells are made of cytoplasm. Cytoplasm is a specially organized solution of salt, nutrients, and complex molecules in water. The composition of cytoplasm may vary among different types of cells, but its purpose is the same – it provides a medium in which complex reactions can occur.
For complex reactions to occur, cells need a source of energy. …show more content…
However, this determination is not always straightforward. Viruses have some, but not all, of the qualities of living organisms, and scientists have long argued whether or not they should be considered as living organisms.
In this exercise you will determine whether specimens are non-living, living, or dead.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE - STATION LAB
First, observe the specimens located at each station without touching it. Examine their size, color, shape, and even smell (if possible). (Do not taste the specimens.) Then follow the instructions at each lab station for examining the specimen further. As you look at each specimen, ask yourself whether it has some or all of the characteristics of a living organism.
Work with your lab group to compile a list of what you know about each specimen.
Record in your data table all the characteristics your lab group observed that would classify each specimen as living or as nonliving.
Team Data Table
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Bacteria may travel for a lengthy amount of time before crashing randomly with other planets or disks. If met with ideal conditions on a new planets’ surfaces, the bacteria becomes active and the process of evolution begins. In natural science, abiogenesis is the natural process by which life arises from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. It is a study of how biological life processes, and the method by how life on how Earth arose.
The cell wall gives the cell structure and so do the beams of the stadium. 3. Mitochondria - The mitochondria in a cell is like the crowd at a baseball game. The mitochondria gives the cell energy just like the crowd does at a baseball game. The crowd gets the players pumped up by cheering and yelling.
Bacteria are living things that have only one cell. Under a microscope, they look like balls, rods, or spirals. Many are helpful. Some bacteria help to digest food, destroy disease-causing cells, and give the body needed vitamins. Bacteria are also used in making healthy foods like yogurt.
These microorganisms are used to teach us how multicellular organisms came to be and how they can survive today. These small, microscopic organisms are so unique that the identification of them is paramount in the advancements of science. Knowing the chemical makeup, the shape, and the biochemical processes is important in identifying these organisms to understand how they survive and where. A number of tests can be ran on an unknown bacteria to determine their ideal
Introduction The purpose of this lab is to use control variables to help identify different macromolecules. Biological systems are made up of these four major macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are sugar molecules (monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides) which make them the most abundant macromolecule on the earth. Lipids (oils and fats, phospholipids and steroids) are insoluble in water and perform many functions such as energy source, essential nutrients, hormones and insulators (Lehman, 1955).
Experiment 2 Report Scaffold (Substitution Reactions, Purification, and Identification) Purpose/Introduction 1. A Sn2 reaction was conducted; this involved benzyl bromide, sodium hydroxide, an unknown compound and ethanol through reflux technique, mel-temp recordings, recrystallization, and analysis of TLC plates. 2. There was one unknown compound in the reaction that was later discovered after a series of techniques described above.
The effects of alcohol on Biological Membranes. Introduction In this experiment it will be analysed the damage alcohols can have on biological membranes. Membranes are made up of lipids and proteins. Membranes usually help maintain the balance in a cell as it holds all the cellular materials.
1. This experiment was performed using cells from 3 different species, Vicia faba (broad bean), Allium cepa (onion), and Coregonus clupeiformis (whitefish), which obviously have variability between them. Onions are bulb plants, meaning they have a ball of stored nutrients underneath the soil out of which the roots protrude, where the broad bean does not have a bulb, having most of its mass above the soil. The whitefish is of course an animal, entirely different from the plants, including in how the cell cycle is performed. A cleavage furrow forms instead of a cell plate to perform cytokinesis, and centrosomes are present in its mitotic cycle, unlike in plants.
Biochemical tests are the tests used for the identification of bacterial species based on the differences in the biochemical activities of different bacteria. Bacterial physiology differs from one species to the other. These differences in carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, fat metabolism, production of certain enzymes and ability to utilize a particular compound help them to be identified by the biochemical tests. Gram’s stain was originally devised by histologist Hans Christian Gram in 1884. Gram-positive bacteria stain purple, while Gram-negative bacteria stain pink when subjected to Gram staining.
I. There are numerous amounts of diseases all over the world. In the present time, these diseases are cured or contained by vaccines. A couple centuries ago, doctor Edward Jenner developed the first vaccine in 1796. He discovered this vaccine by observing his ambiance. Jenner realized that milkmaids (tend to cattle) frequently contracted cowpox, but after they convalesced they were immune to the deadlier disease smallpox.
The human body is an amazing thing made up of many different parts. These parts are cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. For starters, one type of cell makes up one type of tissue. Next, two or more types of tissues make an organ. Then, a few organs working together make an organ system.
Prokaryotic organisms normally have a cytoplasmic membrane, cell wall, and sometimes a capsule. Bacterial cells are most commonly either coccus or bacillus in shape. The cell wall is either Gram positive or Gram negative. When the cell is Gram negative, the cell has an extra layer of lipopolysaccharides. The Gram positive has a thick layer of peptidoglycan.