DNA Fingerprinting Using Agarose Gel S. Aaron Sowards Bio 122 Lab 04 Brianna Adanitsch Jakob Lester Minhenga Ngijoi 2/21/18 Dr. Chad R. Sethman Abstract DNA fingerprinting is the process of analyzing an individual’s DNA base-pair patterns. The DNA fingerprinting lab involved identifying the suspect using Agarose Gel and Polymerase Chain Reaction. It was found that suspect two s DNA matched the crime scene DNA. This is known because suspect twos DNA traveled the same distance as the crime scene DNA. DNA Fingerprinting Using Agarose Gel Introduction In 1984 Dr. Alex Jeffreys came up with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprinting, which is also known as DNA profiling or DNA typing.
No two people have the same DNA. However, Identical twins do have the same kind of DNA adds an exception in this technique. It permits the identification of the body materials not from an individual’s body but it can be compared with his/her blood relations. The evidences used for extraction of DNA are found in majority of crimes like Blood, semen, hair, etc. Biological matter used to determine a DNA profile comprises blood, feces, hair, teeth, bone, semen, saliva, urine, tissue and cells.
The chromatone is composed of DNA. DNA contains the information for the production of protein. The nucleus gives the signal to let the cell grow, divide or make proteins. A nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus, allowing only certain substance to enter and exist. There are five parts to the nucleus the nucleus consist of the following main parts: The Nucleolemma or nuclear membrane (karyotheca).
These fungi contain ascus with is a tiny sac with pores that formed during its life cycle. Figures 6 and 7 reflect the mushroom-like porous caps with septate. Ascomycetes producing microscopic spores inside elongated sacs, 8 spores each, where fluid increase and eventually burst. Figure 8 is the body of the Ascomycete and figure 7 includes the spores of the Ascomycete. Basidomycota are the spore producing body of fungus called Basidiocarps and composed of densely packed hyphae.
Zygomycota Structure - They have Cell walls which are made of chitin-chitosan. Zygospore which are mature has thick walls. Description - In the kingdom of fungi they are very small group and they are the Phylum Zygomycota.They can reproduce asexually or sexually with the help of process cis a classification that encompasses many dialled conjugation.In the classification of Zygomycota you can see many dfferent species and they all have a genome structure which are different. Characteristics - They can reproduce asexually or sexually with the helps of a process known as conjugation.They are mold which is found on the surfaces of breads, fruits, and vegetables. They live in soil or on plants and animals.
In two ways DNA binding protein can interact with the target DNA. It can bind to the target DNA in a sequence specific manner, where the DNA binding domain can recognize and bind to a specific sequence of the DNA, which is called recognition sequence. This type of interaction is call 'sequence specific DNA-protein interaction'. Sometimes the DNA binding domain can randomly bind to a double stranded as well as a single stranded DNA. It is called 'sequence non-specific DNA-protein interaction'.
Blotting transfers DNA fragments from the gel to the blotting paper, allowing the fragments to be probed for specific DNA sequences. There are multiple types of blotting; the three most common types are Southern blotting, which transfers DNA, Northern blotting which transfers RNA, and Western blotting, which transfers protein fragments. While probing does not actually alter an organism’s DNA, it helps to locate specific genes and
INTRODUCTION Genome is the sum total of all genetic material of an organism. The genome may be either DNA or RNA. Eukaryotes and prokaryotes always have a DNA genome but viruses may either have a DNA genome or RNA genome. There are two distinct parts in eukaryotic genome, one is the nuclear genome and the other is the organelle genome, which is of two types: mitochondrial and chloroplast genome respectively. This paper focuses on the organelle genome of eukaryotes, that is, mitochondrial and chloroplast genome.
to adhere and colonize human intestinal mucosa/ epithelial cells is a major criterion for selection as probiotic or commensal bacteria. Adhesion to the host tissues is a prerequisite first step of bacterial colonization which is generally mediated by cell surface adhesion proteins . Adhesion of probiotic bacteria not only help in persistence of bacteria in gut but also participate in pathogen exclusion by competition and blocking of their binding sites at the mucosa . This adherence to epithelial cells on mucosal surface is modulated by specific binding of microbial adhesins. Lactobacilli adhesins can be broadly classified according to their targets in the intestinal mucosa (i.e.
Next step is translation, in which the RNA becomes a protein, which then can act as structural units or enzymes. 2. How does DNA replicate itself? In order to replicate itself, DNA undergoes DNA replication, a process in which the DNA unwinds and splits in two. From that point on, new nucleotides are added to each of the original strands (A to T, C to G) until the result is two identical sequence copies of DNA.
This bacteria can be life threaten when it infects the fascia, or connective tissue that surrounds muscles, blood vessels and nerve. Streptococcus pyogenes destroy red platelets, white platelets that is the body defense system, and other body cells. With the immune system compromised Streptococcus pyogenes is capable of causing many different diseases. These diseases range from mild, like strep throat and impetigo, to severe, like necrotizing fasciitis, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The bacteria typically enters the body through an open of the skin causing infection just below the skin that spreads to deeper
In cases where a suspect is identified, a sample of that person’s DNA can be compared to evidence from the crime scene. Also, in cases where a suspect has not yet been identified, biological evidence from the crime scene can be analyzed and compared to offender profiles in DNA databases to help identify the perpetrator. DNA can be used to identify criminals with incredible accuracy when biological evidence exists. In all, DNA technology is increasingly vital to ensuring accuracy and fairness in the criminal justice system. DNA profiling was originally developed as a method of determining paternity.
Eukaryotic represent new ways of organizing cell structures and novel strategies for propagating life. Protists are not a single evolutionary lineage, protists are diverse in size, shape, cellular organization, modes of nutrition, and life cycle. Protists are also microscopic. Most microbial are motile. They can swim with the help of one or more flagella, or by waving a carpet of tiny hairs called cilia.
The repressor is a regulatory protein that binds to the operator and blocks transcription of the genes of an operon. Inducers bind to the repressors and they also regulate gene expression. In the process of identifying the three strains of E.coli, ONPG (ortho-nitrophenyl b-D galactoside) was used as an indicator. ONPG is a substrate that can detect B-galactosidase, and when it does, it turns yellow. Sarkosyl was also a detergent used in the lab to lyse open cells.