Animal forensic is a scientific technique used in the investigation of crimes against animals (agricultural animals, domestic animals, wild life, etc.). It has several applications for solving cases related to animals, like settling legal animal claims, investigating unknown reason for the loss of endangered, threatened and protected animal species. It also helps in preventing animal poaching, blood sport, illegal trafficking of parts and products of regulated species. Animal forensics also helps in protecting social and religious values of a society since animals also a part of human diet, and there are many religious issues concerned with the diet. There are other challenges to animal forensics such as scant availability of samples (pieces …show more content…
It is based on extremely sensitive PCR techniques. Using DNA evidence suspects can be linked to crime scenes from as little as the skin cells on a steering wheel or saliva on a cigarette butt. DNA based forensic methods are much more efficient than the conventional methods because of so many obvious reasons. Cases could be solved even investigations begun after decades by analyzing DNA from degraded samples. Moreover, it is possible to deduce phylogenetic/evolutionary relations through DNA based forensic methods. In tropical countries, due to high ambient temperature sample degradation is common problem. Particularly in India, there are fewer diagnostic laboratories so the samples have to be transported over a considerably larger distances. The field personnel are also inadequately trained for collection, preservation and transport of samples. All these factors pinnacle the importance of DNA based forensic methods. This chapter mainly focuses on animal forensics and its application, and is divided into following sections: Materials used in forensics, and protocols for extracting DNA from such materials, Applications of animal forensics, and Forensic genetic identification …show more content…
A typical hair consists of a root and hair shaft, which is basically composed of mark, cortex and cuticle. The structure of the hair cuticle, mark cells and its continuity, cuticular pattern, medulla type and medullary index are strictly species specific. These characteristics allow species differentiation. Morphology, microscopy and histology represent the classical methods in the field of forensic hair analysis. Type, number, and state of preservation of seized hair effects its value as trace evidence. Microscopic analysis of hair roots allows not only the determination of growth phase, but also a distinction between pulled out and naturally shed hairs. But still these technologies have several shortcomings and not enough for the identification of individual
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A woman discovered the bodies of 2 young black men concealed in the vegetation alongside a road in 1979. These murders were the beginning of “Atlanta Child Murders”, which would total, nearly 20 young black males by 1981. These black young men had been strangled or suffocated (Trace evidence Wayne Williams (n.d.). The police had no witnesses only and relied on the forensic evidence of fibers found on the bodies and clothing of the victims.
Solving the Case A man was walking his dog at night when he heard a gunshot. He ran to the place where he heard it and saw a young man shot on the floor with a gun beside him. He picked it up carelessly and put it aside then called 911. When the police arrived they took all the evidence with them. A month later there are police at his doorstep arresting him for the murder of the young man.
Wayne Bertram Williams was born on May 27, 1958, in Atlanta, Georgia. Catastrophically, Wayne Williams is still the prime suspect in the murders of more than twenty black youths from 1979 to 1981 that occurred in Atlanta, Georgia, although he was only convicted of killing two adults. Little is known about Wayne Williams’s early life, but his public journey to infamy began on July 28, 1979, when a woman in Atlanta came across two bodies hidden under bushes at the side of the road. Both corpses were male, black and children; Edward Smith, fourteen, reported missing a week before, was shot with a .22-caliber weapon. The other victim, thirteen-year-old Alfred Adams, was reported missing three days before and was murdered by asphyxiation.
Name of case: 1977 Cold Murder Case Victim: “Jimmy the Geek” Suspects: Frank Wright How hair played a role: The hair that was clenched in Jimmy’s hand, supposedly the murderers, was analyzed and matched up to Frank Wright many years after the murder and the case was solved. Link: http://losangeles.cbslocal.com/2010/08/31/1977-cold-case-murder-solved-by-a-hair/ Name of case: Dog Hair to Convict a Man Victim: an unknown cab driver Suspects: Santae Tribble How hair played a role: This man was falsely convicted of robbery and murder under the evidence of a hair sample from the crime scene. The sample was later confirmed to not be his but that of a dog.
Statement of the Problem DNA has become a vital part of criminal investigations. DNA can include and exclude suspects of criminal investigations. During a criminal investigation, all DNA should be collected, properly preserved and tested, but at times this does not occur or the technology was not available for this process to occur. In addition, DNA has become an imperative portion of exoneration cases.
D Assessment DNA technology Forensic testing 24.11.2014 Marius Martinsen 10D Introduction: I have chosen to investigate Forensic testing, it is also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting. During this essay I will discuss what the disadvantages and what the advantages of forensic testing are. I will also talk about how forensic testing is carried out. Forensic testing is used to identify an individual by using the DNA sequences of that person.
DNA Fingerprinting Using Agarose Gel S. Aaron Sowards Bio 122 Lab 04 Brianna Adanitsch Jakob Lester Minhenga Ngijoi 2/21/18 Dr. Chad R. Sethman Abstract DNA fingerprinting is the process of analyzing an individual’s DNA base-pair patterns. The DNA fingerprinting lab involved identifying the suspect using Agarose Gel and Polymerase Chain Reaction. It was found that suspect two s DNA matched the crime scene DNA.
In King, Justice Kennedy referred to the invention of DNA technology as “one of the most significant scientific advancements of our era.” This statement has been criticized, but the impact of DNA technology has been significant. Currently, forensic analysts can use “junk” DNA to identify a person with near certainty. Law enforcement can collect a person’s DNA through saliva. The sample is then uploaded to CODIS, a national network of DNA databases.
A positive aspect of this is that forensic scientists only need a small amount of a sample to get the results they need (“Forensic Science” 12). These samples can come from many other forms of identification other than fingerprints and bloodstains. A few moderate examples include strands of hair, tiny beads of sweat, and a saliva specimen (“Forensic Science” 12). Forensic Science Technicians stated that “crime scene investigators may use tweezers, black lights, and specialized kits to identify and collect evidence.” They also stated that examining autopsies prove to be beneficial in a crime investigation (“Forensic Science Technicians”
The police searched Robert Pickton’s farm, and found 80 DNA profiles of both men and women retrieved on pillowslips, inhalers, syringes, jackets, lipsticks, boots, bags and many more objects that were identified by forensic biologists (Palmer et al., n.d.). Additional assistance in this case was from “forensic scientists, odontologists, foot morphologists, chemical biologists, and archaeologists” (Mudede, Selcer, Berentson, & Lovejoy, 2003). However, due to the location and brutality of this investigation, forensic anthropology was the major forensic discipline in this case. Forensic anthropologists analyze human remains and apply it in a legal context. They use the study of bone and from that, they determine how a person died as well as the age, gender, height and ancestry of the deceased that leads to the identification of a human being (Forensic Anthropologist, 2015).
I feel that DNA is the only reliable forensic tool because its principles are example of real science. Mentioned in the video, forensic science was developed by law enforcement, but DNA analysis was developed by medical science. A much more reliable source. There may be certain situations where DNA isn’t the best tool to go off of. Like for example if there isn’t an enough quantity of it at the scene of a crime or if it has been mixed with someone else’s (Kaye and Sensabaugh, 2000).
Purpose: To inform the audience about animal testing I. Introduction A. Attention getting device: Approximately 26 million animals are used every year in US laboratories for cosmetic and biomedical research. B. Thesis: I would like to inform you about how animal testing is conducted. C. Credibility: I have read and studied the articles about animal testing. D. Preview: I am going to share with you purposes of animal testing, how animals are used in laboratory tests, and the effectiveness of animal testing.
DNA in forensic science The majority of cells making up the human body are diploid cells carrying identical DNA, with the exception of haploid gametes and red blood cells. Several types of biological evidence such as blood and hair are commonly used in forensic science, which is the scientific study of evidence for crime scene investigations and other legal matters. Forensic science is used for the purpose of DNA analysis, this is the analysis of DNA samples to determine if it came from a particular individual. DNA analysis is done by obtaining DNA samples from an individual; next, a large sample of DNA is produced from amplified selected sequences from the DNA collected.
This can be done by DNA fingerprinting or by collection of body fluids, such as saliva, semen, urine, blood, skin and hair, found at the scene. Secondly, DNA testing can rule out possible suspects as well. DNA testing can be used to free individuals