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Animal Forensics

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Animal forensic is a scientific technique used in the investigation of crimes against animals (agricultural animals, domestic animals, wild life, etc.). It has several applications for solving cases related to animals, like settling legal animal claims, investigating unknown reason for the loss of endangered, threatened and protected animal species. It also helps in preventing animal poaching, blood sport, illegal trafficking of parts and products of regulated species. Animal forensics also helps in protecting social and religious values of a society since animals also a part of human diet, and there are many religious issues concerned with the diet. There are other challenges to animal forensics such as scant availability of samples (pieces…show more content…
It is based on extremely sensitive PCR techniques. Using DNA evidence suspects can be linked to crime scenes from as little as the skin cells on a steering wheel or saliva on a cigarette butt. DNA based forensic methods are much more efficient than the conventional methods because of so many obvious reasons. Cases could be solved even investigations begun after decades by analyzing DNA from degraded samples. Moreover, it is possible to deduce phylogenetic/evolutionary relations through DNA based forensic methods. In tropical countries, due to high ambient temperature sample degradation is common problem. Particularly in India, there are fewer diagnostic laboratories so the samples have to be transported over a considerably larger distances. The field personnel are also inadequately trained for collection, preservation and transport of samples. All these factors pinnacle the importance of DNA based forensic methods. This chapter mainly focuses on animal forensics and its application, and is divided into following sections: Materials used in forensics, and protocols for extracting DNA from such materials, Applications of animal forensics, and Forensic genetic identification…show more content…
A typical hair consists of a root and hair shaft, which is basically composed of mark, cortex and cuticle. The structure of the hair cuticle, mark cells and its continuity, cuticular pattern, medulla type and medullary index are strictly species specific. These characteristics allow species differentiation. Morphology, microscopy and histology represent the classical methods in the field of forensic hair analysis. Type, number, and state of preservation of seized hair effects its value as trace evidence. Microscopic analysis of hair roots allows not only the determination of growth phase, but also a distinction between pulled out and naturally shed hairs. But still these technologies have several shortcomings and not enough for the identification of individual
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