Ap Biology Review Sheet

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1. active site- The part of the enzyme that hold the substrate. 2. active transport- A type of diffusion that uses ATP since the molecules that aren’t concentrated move toward more concentrated molecules. 3. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)- A compound formed from exergonic reactions that has an adenosine molecule attached to three phosphate groups. 4. cellular metabolism- The sum of all the chemical processes in a cell. 5. cellular respiration- In the mitochondria, glucose is broken down to form ATP in a chemical reaction. 6. chemical energy- Energy that can be used in a chemical reaction, but is potential energy before the reaction occurs. 7. Coenzyme- Molecules that aren’t proteins but are organic. They help make …show more content…

Cofactor- Molecules that aren’t proteins nor organic, but help make the reaction go faster when they connect to the active site. 9. competitive inhibitor- prohibits the reaction from taking place by going into the enzyme’s active site so the substrate can’t. 10. concentration gradient- When there’s lots of molecules of something they will move to the area where there’s less molecules until the amounts are equal. 11. countercurrent exchange- when two fluids flowing in reverse directions transfer a substance to each other. 12. diffusion- When molecules move due to unequal amounts of them in different places. 13. endergonic reaction- A reaction where the products have more energy than the reactants since energy was added into the reaction. 14. endocytosis- When larger molecules are able to enter the cell. 15. Energy-is what causes objects to carry out their tasks. 16. energy coupling- When endergonic reactions utilize the energy that was released from an exergonic reaction. 17. energy of activation-The amount of energy that is needed in order for a reaction to start. 18. entropy- chaos 19. enzyme- a type of protein that allows a reaction to go faster by lowering the amount of activation energy for a reaction to …show more content…

Receptor- the substance that can react to a signal. 38. receptor-mediated endocytosis- The type of endocytosis that is very precise in what solutes it will take into the cell. 39. second law of thermodynamics- Whenever energy is transformed, the universe becomes more chaotic. 40. Secretion- molecules are created and transported out of the cell. 41. selective permeability- the plasma membrane makes it simple for certain molecules to cross, but difficult for other molecules. 42. signal transduction- A signaling molecule goes to a receptor protein which then carries out the signal to the molecules that are in the cell. 43. substrate- The reactant that is in an enzyme when a reaction is taking place. 44. thermodynamics- The research of energy conversions. 45. induced fit- the way the enzyme is able to speed up the reaction by altering the reactants (such as by changing the bonds between the substrate or by altering the chemical groups in the substrate). 46. Plasmolysis- When a plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, the water goes out of the plant cell, so the cell shrinks. 47. phagocytosis- When the cell uses its pseudopodia to take in a molecule and captures in a

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