1. active site- The part of the enzyme that hold the substrate. 2. active transport- A type of diffusion that uses ATP since the molecules that aren’t concentrated move toward more concentrated molecules. 3. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)- A compound formed from exergonic reactions that has an adenosine molecule attached to three phosphate groups. 4. cellular metabolism- The sum of all the chemical processes in a cell. 5. cellular respiration- In the mitochondria, glucose is broken down to form ATP in a chemical reaction. 6. chemical energy- Energy that can be used in a chemical reaction, but is potential energy before the reaction occurs. 7. Coenzyme- Molecules that aren’t proteins but are organic. They help make …show more content…
Cofactor- Molecules that aren’t proteins nor organic, but help make the reaction go faster when they connect to the active site. 9. competitive inhibitor- prohibits the reaction from taking place by going into the enzyme’s active site so the substrate can’t. 10. concentration gradient- When there’s lots of molecules of something they will move to the area where there’s less molecules until the amounts are equal. 11. countercurrent exchange- when two fluids flowing in reverse directions transfer a substance to each other. 12. diffusion- When molecules move due to unequal amounts of them in different places. 13. endergonic reaction- A reaction where the products have more energy than the reactants since energy was added into the reaction. 14. endocytosis- When larger molecules are able to enter the cell. 15. Energy-is what causes objects to carry out their tasks. 16. energy coupling- When endergonic reactions utilize the energy that was released from an exergonic reaction. 17. energy of activation-The amount of energy that is needed in order for a reaction to start. 18. entropy- chaos 19. enzyme- a type of protein that allows a reaction to go faster by lowering the amount of activation energy for a reaction to …show more content…
Receptor- the substance that can react to a signal. 38. receptor-mediated endocytosis- The type of endocytosis that is very precise in what solutes it will take into the cell. 39. second law of thermodynamics- Whenever energy is transformed, the universe becomes more chaotic. 40. Secretion- molecules are created and transported out of the cell. 41. selective permeability- the plasma membrane makes it simple for certain molecules to cross, but difficult for other molecules. 42. signal transduction- A signaling molecule goes to a receptor protein which then carries out the signal to the molecules that are in the cell. 43. substrate- The reactant that is in an enzyme when a reaction is taking place. 44. thermodynamics- The research of energy conversions. 45. induced fit- the way the enzyme is able to speed up the reaction by altering the reactants (such as by changing the bonds between the substrate or by altering the chemical groups in the substrate). 46. Plasmolysis- When a plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, the water goes out of the plant cell, so the cell shrinks. 47. phagocytosis- When the cell uses its pseudopodia to take in a molecule and captures in a
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A reactant is the substance that is used up in a chemical reaction to give product, which is the substance that is made at the end of the reaction. Besides, the energy of the molecules that determines how fast molecules are moving is known as temperature. Therefore, the rate of the reaction that happens between molecules is affected by the size of the reactant.
An enzyme is protein that acts as a catalyst. Catalyst is a chemical agent that increases a chemical’s reaction rate by decreasing the activation energy (initial energy). In this experiment we used Turnip Peroxidase as our enzyme. It was primarily designed to find out if changing different factors such as, the enzyme concentration, temperature, pH and an inhibitor could have an effect on the enzyme’s activity.
Catalase is a common enzyme that is present in nearly all living organisms. Enzymes are proteins that catalyse selective chemical functions without altering the products or itself. In order to accelerate a reaction, the enzyme will bind to one or more reactant molecules known as the substrates. These substrates will bind to the enzyme’s selective active site, and will then be broken down into products. All chemical reactions that occur in a living organism depend on the actions of enzymes, and function in a temperate environment similar to the body temperature of a living organism.
They are proteins that are complexly folded to allow smaller molecules to fit into them; this active site is where substrate molecules bind. Enzymes must collide with one another at a precise position with enough activation energy. The active site must bind to the reacting molecule, or the substrate (1). Enzyme-catalyzed reactions require lower activation energy. The activity of an enzyme is affected by its environmental factors, and any change results in an alteration in the rate of the reaction caused by the enzyme (2).
Some factors that influence the speed of a chemical reaction are: (1) surface area of starting reactants; (2) concentration of reactants; (3) temperatures. The particle theory states that a solute dissolved takes place at the surface of the solvent and the larger the surface area of the particle the longer it will take to dissolve. The smaller the area the faster it will
Enzymes are proteins that significantly speed up the rate of chemical reactions that take place within cells. Some enzymes help to break large molecules into smaller pieces that are more easily absorbed by the body. Other enzymes help bind two molecules together to produce a new molecule. Enzymes are selective catalysts, meaning that each enzyme only speeds up a specific reaction. The molecules that an enzyme works with are called substrates.
An enzyme is a biomolecule that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions (1). Enzymes are commonly used in many products and medications. Enzymes function by flexibly binding to active sites in substrates (reactants). This binding is weak non-covalent interactions.
Enzymes consist of an active site, this active site is unique to the substrate which it binds to. The active site is a tertiary structure which defines what substrate can bind to the active site. The active site is therefore highly specific. The structure and function of enzymes are compared to the lock and key hypothesis, where the lock is the enzyme and the key being the substrate. Another theory which has been presented is the induced fit hypothesis, where the tertiary structure in the active site changes slightly when bonded to the substrate to strengthen the bond between the active site and the substrate.
In this experiment we tested If the increase or decrease in enzymes affect the digestion rate of the substrate. Enzymes are proteins that are very important for all organisms. enzymes are very efficient catalyst for specific chemical reaction. Their purpose is to allow the cell to carry out chemical reaction very quickly so that the cells can build things or take things apart. all enzymes are unique in their own way.
They can only quicken reactions that will eventually occur, but this enables the cell to have a productive metabolism, routing chemicals through metabolic pathways. Enzymes are very specific for the reactions they catalyze; they make sure the chemical processes go in the cell at any given time. Peroxidase was the enzyme being testing in this experiment. A peroxidase is an enzyme that acts as catalysts, which occurs in biological systems. Peroxidase is found in plants, which they play a role in helping to minimize damage caused by stress factors or insect pests.
In simple diffusion, molecule move down the concentration gradient, whereas in facilitated diffusion molecule move up the concentration gradient. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a lower solute concentration to a higher solute concentration. Active transport requires chemical energy to transport molecules against their concentration gradient so more of the substance is inside or outside the cell than normal. It disrupts the equilibrium established by diffusion. Two examples of active transport are endocytosis and exocytosis.
Chemical reactions can occur at a quicker rate as a result of using substances called catalysts. A catalyst is a substance which increases the rate of the chemical reaction without being affected and as a result they can be recovered – being chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. This process is known as catalysis. Enzymes are described as any part of a group of complex proteins or conjugated proteins that are produced by living cells and act as biological catalysts in specific chemical reactions. Enzymes are one the most powerful catalysts and play an important role in living organisms as they allow reactions which would normally require extreme temperatures to occur in all living cells without destroying the organic matter.
An example is when boiling water in a pan; you observe the bubbles rising up. Consequently, the warmer part of the water rises up to where the water is slightly
Enzymes are homogeneous biological catalyst that work by lowering the activation of a reaction pathway or providing a new pathway with a low activation energy. Enzymes are special biological polymers that contain an active site, which is responsible for binding the substrates, the reactants, and processing them into products. As is true of any catalyst, the active site returns to its original state after the products are released. Many enzymes consist primarily of proteins, some featuring organic or inorganic cofactors in their active sites. However, certain ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules can also be biological catalysts, forming ribozymes.