ABSTRACT To catalyze a reaction, an enzyme will grab on (bind) to one or more reactant molecules. In this experiment we examined how increasing the volume of the extract added to the reaction would affect the rate of the reaction. The enzyme used was horseradish peroxidase which helps catalyze hydrogen peroxide. Using different pH levels, the absorbance rate of the reaction was measured to see at which condition the enzyme worked best. The rates of absorption were calculated using a spectrophotometer in 20 second intervals up to 120 seconds. It was hypothesized that the optimal pH for the enzyme was pH 7 while the 1.0 ml peroxidase would have the best reaction rate. At the end of the experiment the results prove the hypothesis to be incorrect. INTRODUCTION Enzymes are proteins that allow a reaction to speed up. These proteins are made up of monomers known as amino acids. Each amino acid is made up of an amino group, a carboxyl group and a side chain (Reece, J. B., Urry, L. (2016). Campbell biology. Boston Pearson). Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy of the reaction making the reaction produce faster. Enzymes begin to catalyze chemical reactions with the binding of the substrate to the active site on the enzyme. The products are released from the enzyme surface to regenerate the enzyme for another reaction cycle. The active site has a unique geometric shape that is complementary to the shape of a substrate molecule, similar to the fit of puzzle pieces.
Title: Enzymes Abstract: Enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions by speeding up the chemicals activation energy. Temperature and pH are just two of the factors that affects enzymes and their involvement with chemicals and the way they function. Throughout this experiment, we conducted a study on peroxidase, which is an enzyme. The following information consist of the recordings of when it was exposed to four different pH levels to come up with an optimum pH and IRV at the end. Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that are used in reactions in living organisms.
Catalysts are chemicals that can be added to these reactions to increase the rate of the reaction without being changed or consumed. Enzymes act upon specific molecules called substrates. The relationship between enzymes and substrates can be thought of as a lock and key relationship. Every substrate has a specific enzyme that can act upon it and change it.
H20 + 2 O2 This experiment will use 1% catalase solution and 3% hydrogen peroxide solution, both diluted into water so the reaction slows down. Temperature will be controlled in this experiment to change the reaction speed of the enzyme and the substrate, this is what the experiment is looking at. The effect of the temperature will be determined by how much gas is released in two minutes, which will change the pressure inside the test tube and will be measured by a gas
Abstract This experiment showed that temperature, concentration and pH all affect the rate of enzyme reaction differently. Enzymes are very important in organisms and therefore understanding how and why they work the way they do in specific conditions is crucial. The results showed that an increase in temperature would also increase the reaction rate, until a temperature that was too high, where the enzymes began to denature and therefore the rate of reaction was slowed down. As concentration was increased, the reaction rate continued to increase.
INTRODUCTION Substances that bind or react to each other use a certain amounts of energy to create a new product in a chemical reaction. Enzymes are proteins used in these reactions to create the same product using less of its supplied energy in that same amount of time. Enzymes are biocatalysts and will bind with the reactive molecules to create substrates forming enzyme-substrate complexes. These complex alter the chemical bonding in the molecules so that they react to each other in the same amount of time using less activation energy.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of varying the concentration of peroxidase on rate of reaction, as well as, the varying temperature and pH levels. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions that work by reducing the activation energy for each reaction, causing an increase to the rate of the reaction. One class of enzymes are known as peroxidase. Peroxidase catalyze the oxidation of a particular substrate by hydrogen peroxide. Meaning that it eliminates H2O2 in order to prevent damage to the cells and tissues (Department of Biology University of Tampa 74).
Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed. Enzymes are globular proteins that contain an active site. A specific substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme chemically and structurally (4). Enzymes also increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy for that reaction which is the minimum energy required for the reaction to take place (3). Multiple factors affect the activity of an enzyme (1).
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate.
The level of pH affects absorption of the peroxidase. According to the figure 6, closeness of pH 5 to 7 determines the enzyme’s reaction rates. It had the lowest reaction rate is at pH 3 and 9 while it had the highest at pH 5. In conclusion, the enzyme reaction rate is higher at the neutral state of pH and the pH level affects the enzyme’s activity. Therefore, I accept the hypothesis 3 which was the pH level would affect enzyme
The objective of this lab was to determine the best pH level to increase enzyme activity. As this objective was met, it was discovered that water (pH level 7) was the best for percent absorbance. The hypothesis for this experiment was, “If peroxidase is an enzyme and therefore contains certain pH tolerances, then when placed in solution with pH levels of three, seven, and ten and the reaction is measured by a colorimeter, then water will be the optimal solution for maximum reaction rate.” As seen in the tables and graphs, the data supported the hypothesis due to the fact that most enzymes have an optimal pH of 4-9.
Nevertheless, the effects caused by the breakage of bonds will eventually lead to a decrease in the rate of reaction. As seen in the data, the reaction rate increased from 0.088 to 0.101 throughout the interval of -5℃ to 20℃ then decreased to 0.037 throughout the interval 20℃ to 56℃. This can be explained by the fact that 20℃ is the optimal temperature, therefore the active site of the enzyme is complementary to the substrate, causing the rate of reaction to be
The substrates bind to a region on the enzyme called the active site. The active site is precisely shaped to hold specific substrates. Beta-galactosidase is one of the three genes in the lac operon. A lac operon is an operon required for the digestion of lactose in bacteria cells. B-galactosidase converts lactose, a disaccharide, into glucose and galactose, monosaccharides.
Introduction In class, a series of experiments were performed that pertained to the enzyme known as catalase, which converts hydrogen peroxide into oxygen. Due to peroxide being toxic to the tissues of both plants and animals, both possess the enzyme catalase, which breaks into two non-toxic compounds: water and oxygen gas. Enzymes are proteins that react to certain substrates to create a product, and continue doing so afterwards. Methods and Materials To test reactions between catalase and hydrogen peroxide, groups of three to four people were formed.
They can only quicken reactions that will eventually occur, but this enables the cell to have a productive metabolism, routing chemicals through metabolic pathways. Enzymes are very specific for the reactions they catalyze; they make sure the chemical processes go in the cell at any given time. Peroxidase was the enzyme being testing in this experiment. A peroxidase is an enzyme that acts as catalysts, which occurs in biological systems. Peroxidase is found in plants, which they play a role in helping to minimize damage caused by stress factors or insect pests.