Chemical equation: . This reaction is exothermic and catalyst is needed to increase the rate of conversion in this reaction. The catalyst used is the vanadium pentoxide. Vanadium pentoxide is manufactured into different types of shape. However it has been found that the most efficient ones would be the daisy-shaped catalyst though the one more commonly in used would be the ring-shaped.With reference to Le Chatelier’s Principle, the increase of temperature in an exothermic reaction will decrease the equilibrium of the conversion.
If the temperature, pH and enzyme concentration is kept constant then the rate of reaction will start to decrease as well as the hydrogen peroxide concentration. Aim: To investigate the effects of changing the concentration of the enzyme catalase that it has on the rate of breaking down the Hydrogen Peroxide solution. Dependant and Independent Variables: The Dependent Variables: Amount of time it takes when the bubbles start to rise till when they stop. The Independent Variable: Amount of Hydrogen Peroxide solution. The Controlled/ Fixed Variables are: • The amount of hydrogen peroxide inserted in each test tube.
Catalyse Enzyme Experiment. Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up chemical reactions which go on inside living things. Without them reactions would be so slow that life would grind to halt. These are examples that can decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide.
Kinetic theory states that molecules are always in constant motion. Kinetic energy and molecule velocity increases as temperature increases. Reactions require collisions between reactant molecules or atoms. In chemical reactions, the reactants change into products when molecule collide with enough energy to break old bonds to make new ones. Collisions increase or become more violent between molecules at higher temperatures or decrease as the temperature is lowered.
e.g isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme acts on isocitrate by oxidation followed by decarboylation Isocitrate is converting into alpha-ketoglutarate with the help of isocitrate dehydrogenase. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF ENZYME ACTION 1.Effect of nzyme concentration The rate of enzyme is directly propotional to the concentration of enzyme provided that the condition of the reaction remains constant and sufficient substrate is supplied. 2. Effect of substrate concentration The rateof reaction increases as the substrate concentration incteases until a certain point (Vmax) at which the reaction attains maximal velocity. Any Increase in substrate concentration after this point cause further increase in the rate of reaction because at Vmax enzyme moleclues are completed saturated with substrate molecules.
During enzyme reaction produces product at an initial rate that is approximately linear for a short period after the start of the reaction. As the reaction proceeds and substrate is consumed, the rate is also gradually slowed down .To measure the initial rate, enzyme compositions are traditionally carried out while the reaction has produced only a few percentile of the reactive material towards complete products formation. The period of the initial step depends on conditions of the reaction and can vary from milliseconds to hour duration. However, equipment for rapidly aqueous liquids allows fast kinetic measurements on initial rates of less than one second Single Substrate Mechanism Enzymes with single-substrate mechanisms include isomerases such as triosephosphateisomerase or bisphosphoglycerate mutase intramolecular lyases such as adenylate cyclase .Catalase is an example of the as the enzyme reacts with a first molecule of hydrogen peroxide Although a single substrate is involved existence of a modified enzyme intermediate means that the mechanism of catalase . Michalis Menten
This process destroys about 25% of the Vitamin C prior to the substance becoming frozen.  Methodology Chemical Reaction There is a method to indicate the amount of Vitamin C in a solution by a redox titration reaction using iodine. The iodine would be added during the titration, the ascorbic acid would become oxidised to dehydroascorbic acid (a colourless chemical), and the iodine would be reduced to iodide ions.  This is because ascorbic acid loses the hydrogen atoms (2) to the iodine and dehydroascorbic acid is formed.  The acid itself is a powerful anti-oxidant and a reducing agent that is capable of donating one to two electrons in redox reactions.
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being a reactant is called a catalyst. The catalysts for biochemical reactions that happen in living organisms are called enzymes. Enzymes are usually proteins, though some ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules act as enzymes too, they never ‘die’ they get recycled being used and used again until they are denatured and no longer fit for use. REFERENCE. Enzymes perform the critical task of lowering a reaction's activation energy, which is the amount of energy that must be put in for the reaction to start.
Research question What is the effect of temperature Amylase activity? Word count-1453 Background research Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up a chemical reactions. They do this by decreasing the activation energy(the energy needed to start the reaction) of a chemical reaction. The enzyme present in our saliva is called Amylase. Amylase increases the rate of reaction by decreasing the activation energy needed to hydrolyse the starch molecules.
This structural distortion is usually due to changes in temperature as well as the tilt angle δ. Quartz type FePo4 sees great increase in cell parameters and cell volume of α phase and non linear rise with respect to changes in temperature. Main factors affecting thermal expansion includes angular variation which happens due to changes in symmetrically - independent intertetrahedral Fe-O-P bridging angles as well as the tilt angles. Therefore, the degree of the temperature affecting thermal expansion is comparable to extent of temperature affecting the tilt angle. The Landau- type model can be used to demonstrate the temperature dependence of this