Title: Enzymes Abstract: Enzymes can catalyze chemical reactions by speeding up the chemicals activation energy. Temperature and pH are just two of the factors that affects enzymes and their involvement with chemicals and the way they function. Throughout this experiment, we conducted a study on peroxidase, which is an enzyme. The following information consist of the recordings of when it was exposed to four different pH levels to come up with an optimum pH and IRV at the end. Introduction: Enzymes are proteins that are used in reactions in living organisms. (Enzymes par. 1) They are very sensitive to their surroundings and highly reactive to the pH levels and temperature once exposed to either one. Temperature causes damage to the enzyme, …show more content…
While conducting this experiment readings were took every 15 seconds for 5 minutes which equals to a total of 20 readings. This experiment had four different trials, a base line trail, a pH 4 trail, a pH of 7 trail, and a pH of 8 trail. Then the results were recorded. The enzyme peroxidase was taken from the inside of a turnip (2g), then blended with 150ml of deionized water, and then poured through a coffee filter into a beaker for a smooth solution. Secondly the colorimeter had to be calibrated by placing a clean cuvette only containing the enzyme solution. In a clean test tube 8.9ml of deionized water, 0.1 guaiacol, and 0.1ml enzyme solution. There was not supposed to be anything that happened after doing this so move to the next step. Next was adding 0.3ml of hydrogen peroxide, then cover it with dura-film to invert the solution. Then fill the cuvette 2/3 full and put it in the colorimeter. So at this point the stopwatch should be ready to start time then record results every 15 seconds. Then continue and follow each step for all four
LABORATORY REPORT Activity: Enzyme Activity Name: Natalie Banc Instructor: Elizabeth Kraske Date: 09.22.2016 Predictions 1. Sucrase will have the greatest activity at pH 6 2. Sucrase will have the greatest activity at 50 °C (122 °F) 3. Sucrase activity increases with increasing sucrose concentration Materials and Methods Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity 1. Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2.
The best conditions are cold temperature, high concentration and a high pH.The conditions would be different for different enzymes because all proteins are different. 6. How would you design an experiment to show how much faster H2O2 decomposes in the presence of an enzyme then it does without the enzyme? Use the same system and just add it with water and compare both of them. 7.
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions enabling more products to be formed within a shorter span of time. Enzymes are fragile and easily disrupted by heat or other mild treatment. Studying the effect of temperature and substrate concentration on enzyme concentration allows better understanding of optimum conditions which enzymes can function. An example of an enzyme catalyzed reaction is enzymatic hydrolysis of an artificial substrate, o-Nitrophenylgalactoside (ONPG) used in place of lactose. Upon hydrolysis by B-galactosidase, a yellow colored compound o-Nitrophenol (ONP) is formed.
Catechol oxidase is found in cell cytoplasm, their function in plants are to "help protect damaged plants bacterial and fungal disease." The objective of this experiment is to test the presences of catechol oxidase in various fruits and vegetables. Our group hypothesis states that, If catechol oxidase is present in the selected extracts, the null hypothesis is that catechol oxidase is not present in the selected extracts. Next, the prediction would be, if catechol oxidase doesn't differ with other enzyme sources, then the rates will
Enzymes are catalysts in biological systems, that lower the activation energy, so that molecules can begin reacting with each other. Since enzymes have a very selective active site, if the enzyme shape is changed or denatured, it won’t allow the enzyme to bind. Catalytic enzymes break down the toxic hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. (Bryer) (Baker) The purpose of these labs were to see how different concentrations of pH, and hydrogen peroxide would affect the enzymes, catalase and
Using two test tubes, label one “s” for substrate and the other “e” for enzyme. The substrate tube should contain 7 mL of distilled water, 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, and 0.2 mL guaiacol and the enzyme tube should contain 6 mL of distilled water and 1.5 mL of peroxidase. Combine the materials of the substrate and enzyme tubes, mix the two using a clean transfer pipette, transfer a portion into a cuvette so that the cuvette is about half-full then cover the top of the cuvette with Parafilm and then place it in the spectrophotometer and record absorbance. Remove the cuvette and repeat recording absorbance at 1, 2, 3, and 4 minutes. Be sure to mix the cuvette and clean its surface with Kimwipes before each reading.
Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed. Enzymes are globular proteins that contain an active site. A specific substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme chemically and structurally (4). Enzymes also increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy for that reaction which is the minimum energy required for the reaction to take place (3). Multiple factors affect the activity of an enzyme (1).
Step 2: Mix both test tubes , shake gently and time the reaction. Step 3: The same step as procedure 1, and step 3 which is to record the observed color step 4: use the palette/color chart to help you identify the observations you make. Safety precautions: Pull your hair back Safety eye goggles Closed toe
Introduction 1.1 Aim: To determine the kinetic parameters, Vmax and Km, of the alkaline phosphatase enzyme through the determination of the optimum pH and temperature. 1.2 Theory and Principles (General Background): Enzymes are highly specific protein catalysts that are utilised in chemical reactions in biological systems.1 Enzymes, being catalysts, decrease the activation energy required to convert substrates to products. They do this by attaching to the substrate to form an intermediate; the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme. Then, another or the same enzyme reacts with the intermediate to form the final product.2 The rate of enzyme-catalysed reactions is influenced by different environmental conditions, such as: concentration
It was hypothesized that the optimal pH for the enzyme was pH 7 while the 1.0 ml peroxidase would have the best reaction rate. At the end of the experiment the results prove the hypothesis to be incorrect. INTRODUCTION Enzymes are proteins that allow a reaction to speed up. These proteins are made up of monomers known as amino acids.
As pH increases or decreases to get closer to the optimal pH --in this case it is 7 for this particular enzyme-- the rate of reaction peaks and is highest at that point, which is described by the molecular shape and structure of the enzyme at its optimal pH. When turnip peroxidase is at pH 7, the active site is able to fit perfectly with the substrate, therefore explaining why the reaction rate is fastest at this point. Accordingly, if the active site is disrupted, the substrate cannot fit perfectly causing the reaction rate to slow down. This can be supported by the data because the reaction rate gradually increased from pH 3 to pH 7 and reached its maximum at pH 7. Once it did reach the optimal pH, the reaction rate continuously decreased
When hydrogen peroxide and enzymes meet, they instantly form a reaction. This reaction is the chemical distillation of enzymes. The reaction is enzymes breaking down and turning into bubbles. How does temperature affect enzyme activity? Potatoes have enzymes in them.
Bio Chem lab Report 04 Enzyme Biochemistry Group Member: Chan Man Jeun Duncan (16002621) Law Sze Man (16000478) Introduction Enzyme is a protein base structure substance in our body. It works at a biocatalyst that will catalyzing the chemical reaction, which helps to speed up the chemical reaction. Enzyme could only function in specific shape, and the shape of enzyme is depending on the environment, therefore it is hard for an enzyme to function well in an extreme environment. The aim of this experiment is to see can the enzyme functions normally in different environment(pH, temperature and salt concentration) via using starch solution, amylase from saliva, 0.5M HCl solution, 0.5M NaOH solution and NaCl solution, and using iodine solution
Dependent The time taken for the bluish -black color to fade away (color of Iodine solution mix with starch solution ). The rate of enzyme reaction Minutes (min) Table 1.1 – Table shows the controlled variables in the experiment variables Units Measures of controlled variables.
They can only quicken reactions that will eventually occur, but this enables the cell to have a productive metabolism, routing chemicals through metabolic pathways. Enzymes are very specific for the reactions they catalyze; they make sure the chemical processes go in the cell at any given time. Peroxidase was the enzyme being testing in this experiment. A peroxidase is an enzyme that acts as catalysts, which occurs in biological systems. Peroxidase is found in plants, which they play a role in helping to minimize damage caused by stress factors or insect pests.