Literature review Research question is how different temperatures affect the catalase enzyme. What is an enzyme? Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions. Substrates are molecules that enzymes could act upon and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products.
The function of an enzyme is determined by its structure, thus the order in which the amino acids are in make up the enzymes specific shape. The precise way that the amino acids are twisted and folded creates a distinctive shape of the enzymes active site. This active site is now open for substrates which are reactant molecules. Once the substrates go into the enzymes active site they bond together and then leave the enzyme, making the enzyme ready for another set of substrates. The function of enzymes is to speed up reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy needed to get the reaction started.
Substrate concentration basically means the amount used for the substrate. The substrate in our experiment was 0.1% hydrogen peroxide. The 0.1% is the concentration amount. Just like temperature and pH, substrate concentration can speed the reaction only up to a certain limit. When we mixed pH 3 enzyme tube with substrate tube, we used 0.3 mL of hydrogen peroxide, but if we were to increase the amount, then the experiment would have been faster.
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
An investigation of the relationship between different concentrations of Sodium Chloride and the rate of reaction of Amylase Marjolijn Hoogevoorst Yeshvanth Prabakar IS12 Word count: 2222 words Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy. Amylase is a type of digestive enzyme found in the pancreases and saliva of humans. Amylase breaks down starch into sugar, allowing large molecules to be digested easily. To function efficiently, amylase requires certain conditions. The effect of different sodium chloride concentrations in this on the rate of reaction of amylase will be investigated in this experiment along with the use of starch and iodine.
They are proteins that are complexly folded to allow smaller molecules to fit into them; this active site is where substrate molecules bind. Enzymes must collide with one another at a precise position with enough activation energy. The active site must bind to the reacting molecule, or the substrate (1). Enzyme-catalyzed reactions require lower activation energy. The activity of an enzyme is affected by its environmental factors, and any change results in an alteration in the rate of the reaction caused by the enzyme (2).
The rate actually depends on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide raised to a power, called the "reaction order." Equation 5: Rate = k(H2O2)x • k = Rate constant, in 1/seconds (s) • (H2O2) = Concentration of hydrogen peroxide, in moles/liter • x = Order of the reaction for hydrogen peroxide, unit less The good news from Equation 5 is that the rate depends on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, and you will know what the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is when the reaction starts. You will use the number of hydrogen peroxide drops as a measure of its concentration. *insert aim* Hence I’ve arrived at the following question: How does varying the concentration of hydrogen peroxide affect the rate of reaction? Research Question: How does varying the concentration of hydrogen peroxide affect the rate of reaction?
Effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity Exploration: Introduction: Catalase is an enzyme normally found in many plant and animal tissues. Its purpose is to destroy toxic substances like hydrogen peroxide which is a byproduct in many cellular reactions. In this lab, we will use a catalase solution from yeast and determine the effect of substrate concentration on the action of this enzyme. The substrate of the enzyme will be different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Catalase works by the following mechanism : 2 H2O2 ------------------> 2 H2O+ O2 Hypothesis: The hypothesis for this experiment is that the foam of O2 produced from the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and catalase will increase in height when the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increases.
First,the aspirin dissolves in water. Second, sodium and citrate ions combine to form sodium citrate which is soluble in the water. Third and finally, the bicarbonate ions from sodium bicarbonate react with hydrogen ions from citric acid to produce water and carbon dioxide gas which is released in bubbles. The result is a fizzy, or effervescent, solution. Bubbles are produced continuously from the time the tablet enters the water until the time when the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid ceases.
The topic of research is, “how fast does an Alka-Seltzer tablet make gas?”. In the experiment, the scientists will be measuring the chemical reaction rates that occur, when 1 Alka-Seltzer tablet is placed in a specific temperature of water. The independent variable during the experiment will be the temperature of the water (degrees Celsius). The dependent variable during the experiment will be, the rate in which gas is produced (in seconds). The constants of the experiment, will be the amount of water used and the Alka Selter compound.
6. How would you design an experiment to show how much faster H2O2 decomposes in the presence of an enzyme then it does without the enzyme? Use the same system and just add it with water and compare both of them. 7. Explain why the enzyme is still active even though the liver cells from which you obtained the enzyme were no longer living?
Enzymes are catalysts in biological systems, that lower the activation energy, so that molecules can begin reacting with each other. Since enzymes have a very selective active site, if the enzyme shape is changed or denatured, it won’t allow the enzyme to bind. Catalytic enzymes break down the toxic hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. (Bryer) (Baker) The purpose of these labs were to see how different concentrations of pH, and hydrogen peroxide would affect the enzymes, catalase and
Introduction: Enzymes are needed for survival in any living system and they control cellular reactions. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering the energy needed for molecules to begin reacting with each other. They do this by forming an enzyme-substrate complex that reduces energy that is required for a specific reaction to occur. Enzymes determine their functions by their shape and structure. Enzymes are made of amino acids, it 's made of anywhere from a hundred to a million amino acids, each they are bonded to other chemical bonds.
Purpose and Techniques: This experiment has the aim to determine a chemical formula of hydrated compound, which ingrains cupper, chloride and water molecules in its structure. In order to find this hydrated compound, it is necessary to use the law of multiple proportions. In other word, finding the appropriate variables values to this compound (CxCly*zH2O). Additionally, two major steps are required to proceed the experiment. The first consists to heat a sample to liberate the water hydration, and then compare two mass weights before and after heating so gets easier to find the water percentage (mass).