The information was gathered through multiple tests which are used to detect the presence of certain macromolecules in the victim’s stomach contents. Then, the detective will be able to pin-point which restaurant the victim last ate at by
I believe glucose and fructose was used as an indicator because they are what produces sucrose and sucrose creates more sucrase activity.
The purpose of this experiment is to test for mitochondrial activity by isolating different organelles using the differential centrifugation process. Studying mitochondria is extremely important because they control the death and life of the cell by regulating the apoptotic signals (Frezza et al 2007). Also they are responsible for the metabolic reactions (aerobic respiration) and the production of ATP (Frezza et al 2007). Three hypotheses were formed based on my knowledge. First, it was hypothesized that test tube "A", the control, would not show any red concentration, test tube "B" which contains supernatant II would show the most red concentration and test tube "C" which contains sediment II would only show a little red concentration. The second hypothesis states that the raw corn kernels would have mitochondrial activity while the boiled corn kernels would not. The last hypothesis interprets that the "gunk" and sediment I will both contain starch granules. It was only expected to find mitochondrial activity in Supernatant II. Unfortunately, after performing this experiment, we were not able to support this hypothesis and come up with a conclusion. A possible explanation for why there was no mitochondrial activity observed in the boiled corn kernels might be because increasing the temperature would disintegrate dehydrogenases and thus they wouldn't function as efficient or they
In the control, beta-amylase was present unlike the experiment, which resulted in less molecules lingering.
To begin, one must test for monosaccharides. Glucose is necessary, and is needed to be placed into a test tube at a quantity of 5 mL. 3 mL of Benedict’s solution is then added. The test tube is then placed in a beaker of boiling water for five minutes or until the color changes. If the color changes, then it is known that monosaccharides are present in the solution. Next, one will test for starches. Starch solution is then placed into the test tube at a quantity of 5 mL. 5 drops of Lugol’s Iodine solution is added to the test tube. If the color changes, then it is known that starches are present in the solution. Proteins are next tested. In order to do this, 5 mL of gelatin solution is added to the test tube. 10 drops of Biuret’s reagent are added to test for protein. If there is a color change, then it is known that protein is present in the solution. Finally, lipids are tested. 5 mL of water are added to 5 mL of oil. 5 drops of Sudan 3 are added, and if the color changes, then lipids are present. Next, the McMush is tested. The same processes are repeated for monosaccharides, starches, proteins, and lipids, except the McMush solution is added in place of the glucose, starch, gelatin, and
In this experiment it will be analysed the damage alcohols can have on biological membranes. Membranes are made up of lipids and proteins. Membranes usually help maintain the balance in a cell as it holds all the cellular materials. There are various membranes and all have a variation of functions.
The investigation was carried out to identify the presence or absence of biological molecules in serum 2216. If the concentration in each test tube of the dilutions carried out will be more concentrated then the concentration of the test tube before it, then the color will be at an equal concentration with the other dilutions performed. The hypothesis was wrong because of the difference in concentrations due to the different measurements within the dilutions done. The test for starch was to add a drop of iodine solution to the pipette in the spotting tile. A reducing sugar solutions is add inside a test tube with 3 drops to then add 3 drops of benedicts and plane in a water bath. In a non-reducing sugar 3cm cubed and 10 drops of hydrochloric acid is placed in a test tube for a water bath of 5 minutes to be mixing afterwards. Biurets reagent is added to the protein solution to determine it presence. Testing for
The controlled variable Concentration of amylase was kept under control by measuring the amount of amylase used and also it was made sure the percentage of amylase used was 1%. The Amount of amylase/starch used were kept to 5cm3 at all times.
This experiment is an attempt to investigate the amount of water potential across root storage plant species. The root storage plant species that shall be used are the carrot and the potato and the method that shall be used is known as Chardakov’s method. Water potential is the tendency of water to enter or leave a cell. Water moves from an area or region of low water potential to an area of high water potential. It is important to note that the highest water potential is 0(the water potential of pure water) and the other water potential values are in negative numbers .
Abstract — This experiment was conducted to familiarize the students with the procedures regarding distillation—to be more precise, the separation of ethanol from an alcoholic beverage—using a distillation set-up consisting of boiling chips, a Bunsen burner, a condenser, a thermometer and several other materials. In the end, it was discovered that one may actually separate a homogeneous mixture, given that the components of said mixture differ in volatility and that they utilize a complete distillation set-up and follow laboratory safety rules and regulations.
In order to utilize casein, bacteria cells secrete proteolytic exoenzymes (amylases, proteases, pectinases, lipases, xylanases and cellulases) outside of the cell that hydrolyze the protein to amino acids. The amino acids can then be used by cells after crossing the cell membrane via transport proteins . Starch hydrolysis test is used to differentiate bacteria based on their ability to hydrolyze starch with the enzyme α-amylase or oligo-l, 6-glucosidase. These enzymes hydrolyze starch by breaking the glycosidic linkages between the sugar subunits. It aids in the differentiation of species from the genera Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium and members of Enterococcus . Gelatin hydrolysis test is used to detect the ability of an organism to produce gelatinase (proteolytic enzyme) that liquefy gelatin. This process takes place in two sequential reactions. In the first reaction, gelatinase degrade gelatin to polypeptides. Then, the polypeptides are further converted into amino acids. The bacterial cells can then take up these amino acids and use them in their metabolic processes. Gelatin hydrolysis test is helpful in identifying and differentiating species of Bacillus, Clostridium, Proteus, Pseudomonas and Serratia . Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) production test is used for the detection of H2S gas produced by an organism. It is used
The term chromatography actually means colour writing, and signifies a technique by which the substance to be examined is placed in a vertical glass tube containing an adsorbent, the different segments of the substance traveling through the adsorbent at distinctive rates of velocity, according to their degree of attraction to it, and producing bands of colour at different levels of the adsorption column. The substances least absorbed emerge earliest; those more strongly absorbed emerge later. (Wixom et al., 2011)
The media used in this experiment was Trypticase nitrate broth. The reagents used (A and B) were sulfanilic acid and alpha-naphthylamine (respectively). Using aseptic technique, the bacterium (16A and 16B) were inoculated into labeled broth test tubes. The tubes were incubated for 48 hours at 37 degrees Celsius. When the incubation was complete 5 drops of reagent A and 5 drops of reagent B were added to each of the broths. If the broth turned a reddish color, the result was then positive. If there was no color change, then a small amount of zinc powder was added. If there was no color change, the result was also positive, but if there was a red coloration development after the zinc was added, the result was then negative. Both Unknown bacteria (16A and 16B) were positive for nitrate reduction. The tubes were then
In test tube B , dark-purple is given in test . It is different from the expected result. At 37℃, it should be a optimum temperature for the enzyme activity. There should not be the present of starch . Thus, there may be low amount of amylase in saliva which cannot break down the starch completely which give dark-purple colour . In test tube C , the iodine solution change from brown to dark blue which is different from the expected . It is because the amylase is denatured at 75℃ that the the activity of amylase is low or even stop. Therefore, the starch is not broken down into maltose by amylase. In the test D, a dark-brown solution is seen in the test tube after adding the iodine as the pH of the 1ml 0.5M HCl is not an optimum pH for the activity of amylase that the starch is broken down into maltose . Amylase may not break down the starch well. In test tube E, a colourless colour formed. It is because redox reaction occurred during the test. Idoine reduced into idoine ion ， which changre from brown to colourless. In test tube F, the iodine solution change from brown to purple . It is because the salt has a function of cofactor which will shorten the time for amylase to take to break down the
Ammonia in butanol was the appropriate solvent to use for the column chromatography of food dye. After testing for the appropriate solvent, the set- up for column chromatography was done (Figure 2.).