Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules in McDonald’s Happy Meals Clayton Wagoner MST Biology White 4 duPont Manual High School Introduction Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are organic molecules found in every living organism. These macromolecules are large carbon based structures. The macromolecules are assembled by joining several smaller units, called monomers, together through a chemical reaction called dehydration synthesis. The resulting polymer can be disassembled through the complementary process called hydrolysis.Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio. This means that for every carbon atom present in the carbohydrate there are two hydrogen …show more content…
To begin, one must test for monosaccharides. Glucose is necessary, and is needed to be placed into a test tube at a quantity of 5 mL. 3 mL of Benedict’s solution is then added. The test tube is then placed in a beaker of boiling water for five minutes or until the color changes. If the color changes, then it is known that monosaccharides are present in the solution. Next, one will test for starches. Starch solution is then placed into the test tube at a quantity of 5 mL. 5 drops of Lugol’s Iodine solution is added to the test tube. If the color changes, then it is known that starches are present in the solution. Proteins are next tested. In order to do this, 5 mL of gelatin solution is added to the test tube. 10 drops of Biuret’s reagent are added to test for protein. If there is a color change, then it is known that protein is present in the solution. Finally, lipids are tested. 5 mL of water are added to 5 mL of oil. 5 drops of Sudan 3 are added, and if the color changes, then lipids are present. Next, the McMush is tested. The same processes are repeated for monosaccharides, starches, proteins, and lipids, except the McMush solution is added in place of the glucose, starch, gelatin, and …show more content…
The cause of this is likely that the protein was already broken down so much when used for cooking that Biuret’s test was unable to detect it. While the results from this experiment seem appropriate for the experiment, there could have been a few issues that could have taken place during the experiment. One of these could be that the solutions used for testing (such as Biuret’s solution) could have at out for too long since we did the experiment in the afternoon. This could lead to an incorrect data. Also, the materials may have not been completely clean, such as the test tubes, which could have also affected the data. In conclusion, from the collected data, the lack of the change in characteristics from Biuret’s solution suggests that there is a minimal amount of protein in both of the McDonald’s happy meals, if
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Fermentation test is used to determine if unknown #398 uses any oxygen to ferment carbohydrates and acids. Oxidation tests were used to determine if unknown #398 metabolizes carbohydrates and acids by cellular respiration. Both tests are observed by inoculation of unknown #398 into 3 sugar broths: lactose, glucose, and mannitol and 1 citrate (Citric acid) slant. Fifth test, Hydrolytic and Degradative reactions is used to determine if unknown #398 contains enzyme, amylase that hydrolyzes starch after streaking on a starch plate. Next test, inoculation of a urea broth and is used to determine if unknown #398 contains urease that hydrolyzes urea.
•We also could have observe someone that has eaten a hamburger from Mcdonalds, and see if there are any changes in the stomach or other organs. Prediction: a.) If Mcdonald 's hamburgers contain harmful bacterias then we should see that Mcdonald’s hamburgers have a bad affect on the human body. b.)
Using two separate aseptic pipettes, 250 µl of LB broth were added to each micro test tube and mixed gently. Likewise, using two separate, aseptic pipettes for each tube, 100 µl of solution was added to the appropriate agar plate. After, using a new loop for each plate, the solution was spread gently across their surfaces. Lastly, the plates were stacked, taped together, and labelled before placing them upside down in an incubator set at 37°C
3.) Use the pipette to gather a small amount of the stomach contents. 4.) Lipid Test: Apply the stomach solution onto the paper bag tear. If a translucent spot appears, it is a positive result and there are lipids present in the stomach contents.
The limitations of the experiment are the accuracy of the measurements and the precision of the concentration of gelatin and gum arabic. If this experiment were replicated, an improvement could be measuring the amount of gelatin and gum arabic precisely. Also more than 1 slide could be made with the same concentration, to ensure accurate
First, it was hypothesized that test tube "A", the control, would not show any red concentration, test tube "B" which contains supernatant II would show the most red concentration and test tube "C" which contains sediment II would only show a little red concentration. The second hypothesis states that the raw corn kernels would have mitochondrial activity while the boiled corn kernels would not. The last hypothesis interprets that the "gunk" and sediment I will both contain starch granules. It was only expected to find mitochondrial activity in Supernatant II. Unfortunately, after performing this experiment, we were not able to support this hypothesis and come up with a conclusion.
A milk-based, litmus broth tube is incubated and observed after 48 hours. Observations include lactose fermentation without gas as well as with gas, the reduction of litmus, casein protein coagulation and casein and protein hydrolysis. These characteristics were all determined based on the color of the solution and the production of a curd, the curds density and the production of a gas. To determine the density of the curd, the tube was slightly turned to see rather or not it was mobile or concentrated towards the bottom. 2.3 Carbohydrate Fermentation of Lactose, Sucrose and
The iodine test determines the presence of starch in biological materials. It is predicted that, if starch is not present, the solution with iodine remains yellow. However, if starch is present the solution with iodine becomes a blue-black colour. Plants have starch as the storage polysaccharide (glucose units held together by glycosidic bonds) while animals have the equivalent of glycogen. In this experiment, the dark blue colour is visible because of the helical amylose and amylopectin reacting with iodine (Travers et al., 2002).
Uncontrolled Environmental conditions Atmospheric conditions The controlled variable Concentration of amylase was kept under control by measuring the amount of amylase used and also it was made sure the percentage of amylase used was 1%. The Amount of amylase/starch used were kept to 5cm3 at all times. Materials needed Beakers Bunsen burner Test tube Thermometer Stopwatch Test plate Glass rod Starch Amylase solution Water bath Iodine solution. Test tube holder Labels Marker Procedure First 5 test tubes were taken and labeled with numbers from 1 to
The experiment shall use several concentrations of sucrose solution and a substance known as Methylene blue. A piece of potato/ carrot shall be placed in a boiling tube and the solution shall be poured into it. This tube shall have Methylene blue added into it. After incubation some of this solution shall be taken out with a pipette and inserted into a separate boiling tube containing the same sucrose solution however this solution shall be known as the pre-incubated solution. The drop shall be watched so as to see if the density of the water and concentration of sucrose has increased or not, displaying the water
Gelatin hydrolysis test is used to detect the ability of an organism to produce gelatinase (proteolytic enzyme) that liquefy gelatin. This process takes place in two sequential reactions. In the first reaction, gelatinase degrade gelatin to polypeptides. Then, the polypeptides are further converted into amino acids. The bacterial cells can then take up these amino acids and use them in their metabolic processes.
The research carried out by health food guide,discovered about the percent of the number of obese children in America increase base on the result of the fast food outcome. Not including the children at risk for obesity,the statistics show that between 10% and 15% of children are already obese nowadays.(Fast Food Effects On Childhood Obesity) b) According to Elisa
The backbones of common monosaccharide molecules are unbranched carbon chains in which all the carbon atoms are linked by single bonds. In the open-chain form, one of the carbon atoms is double-bonded to an oxygen atom to form a carbonyl group; each of the other carbon atoms has a hydroxyl group 2.Disaccharides are condensation products of two monosaccharide units; examples are maltose and sucrose. 3.Oligosaccharides are condensation products of three to ten monosaccharides. Most are not digested by human