The activity of an enzyme is affected by its environmental factors, and any change results in an alteration in the rate of the reaction caused by the enzyme (2). Naturally, the enzymes are adjusted by producing optimum rates of reaction or they adapt to function well in extreme conditions (2). Temperature, pH, and enzyme and substrate concentration all affect enzyme activity. The rate of reaction of an enzyme catalyzed reaction is affected by the difference in enzyme and substrate concentration. Increasing substrate and enzyme concentration will increase the rate of the reaction because more substrate molecules will be colliding with enzyme molecules, resulting in products being formed (1).
There are many factors which affects the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction. The rate of an enzyme controlled reaction is measured by 1.The amount of substrate change per unit time 2.The amount of product formed per unit time 3. The time taken for the completion of the reaction In investigating the effect of one factor : All the factors should be kept constant They must be maintained at suitable levels Only the initial rate should be measured. The factors affecting the rate of reaction are 1.Temperature – At constant optimum levels all factors that affect the rate of enzyme activity are maintained and with increase in temperature up to a certain temperature the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction increases which is the optimum temperature for a particular enzyme. The increase in collisions between the substrate molecules is due to the increase in rate.
These include: temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and substrate concentration. In this experiment the effects of temperature on the enzymes in respiring yeast were being investigated. Firstly, 20 cm3 of yeast suspension was added to the boiling tube, T1. Next, it was stoppered using a rubber bung with a delivery tube attached to it.
The Effect of Sugar Concentration on CO2 Production by Cellular Respiration in Yeast Introduction In this lab, our main focus was to find how sugar concentration affect yeast respiration rates. This was to simulate the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the process that cells use to transfer energy from the organic molecules in food to ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate). Glucose, CO2, and yeast (used as a catalyst in this experiment) are a few of the many vital components that contribute to cellular respiration. Sugar/ glucose is an important carbohydrate that can be made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight.
Effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity Exploration: Introduction: Catalase is an enzyme normally found in many plant and animal tissues. Its purpose is to destroy toxic substances like hydrogen peroxide which is a byproduct in many cellular reactions. In this lab, we will use a catalase solution from yeast and determine the effect of substrate concentration on the action of this enzyme. The substrate of the enzyme will be different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Catalase works by the following mechanism : 2 H2O2 ------------------> 2 H2O+ O2 Hypothesis: The hypothesis for this experiment is that the foam of O2 produced from the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and catalase will increase in height when the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increases.
Note the gradient of the line Exit the linear regression dialog and store the latest run data Add 2, 3, 4 drops of enzyme catalase solution to test tube 2, 3, 4 respectively and repeat the above procedure for each test tube. Access other groups results and fill table 4 RESULTS In this experiment it was found that increase in number of drops of enzyme suspension led to increased pressure as shown in the table 3. The reaction was repeated 3 times and average rate noted. From these rates a graph was plotted which describes the relationship of the pressure produced and number of drops added. The reaction rates were measured by Kpa/min and were written to 4 figures for precise results.
They tested how the temperature would affect the rate of reaction. This was observed by the amount of time it took for the solution to change colors. For many chemical reactions there is an optimum temperature at which the chemicals will react with each other. As was found in their experiment, the temperature affected the rate of reaction. (Deoudes, 2010).
Viscosity of the formulation was determined using Brookfield Viscometer. The viscosity of the formulation increased with an increase in Sodium Alginate and Pectin concentration. This phenomenon is a consequence of increasing chain interaction with an increase in polymer concentration. This change in viscosity is proportion to the change in concentration and polymer ratio. The buoyancy lag time in simulated gastric fluid (0.1 mol L-1 HCL, pH 1.2) varied with the formulation variable.
Effect of varying temperature and pH: Effect of varying temperature (5 °C, 25 °C, 37 °C and 45 °C) on biotransformation of Eugenol was studied at pH of 7. After choosing an optimum temperature, pH was optimized in the range of 5-9 to observe its effect on production of valuable products. Similarly, Medium and culture conditions were maintained as described in section 4.2. The cultures were incubated for 2, 4, and 6 days to monitor effect of varying temperature and pH on production of different metabolites during biotransformation. 3.5.6.