Metabolic processes are very important in the cell. Most of these processes need to be facilitated by enzymes and macromolecules. Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles which facilitate most of the metabolic processes, while prokaryotes do not have membrane bound organelles and metabolic processes occur in the cytoplasm. Both cells types have ribosomes; however they do not have the same structure. The ribosomes of a eukaryote contain more protein and less RNA than inside the ribosomes of prokaryotes.
Assignment unit 3 1. Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have: 1) a membrane-bound nucleus; 2) numerous membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and others; and 3) several, rod-shaped chromosomes. Because a eukaryotic cell’s nucleus is surrounded by a membrane, it is often said to have a “true nucleus.” The word “organelle” means “little organ,” and, as already mentioned, organelles have specialized cellular functions, just as the organs of your body have specialized functions. At this point, it should be clear to you that eukaryotic cells have a more complex structure than prokaryotic cells. Organelles allow different functions to be compartmentalized in different areas of the cell.
The bacteria was plated in mid-log phase, this was done for two possible reasons. One being conjugation is highly efficient and successful during mid log phase and because kanamycin is an antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis in growing bacteria by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacteria ribosome. This blocks the tRNA binding which stops the bacteria from making proteins for growth (Bacteriostatic). If the conjugation was successful the growing bacteria would be able to block kanamycin
Some of the proteins are established to be included in mitophagy but not in common autophagy. Xenophagy is the process by which a cell directs autophagy against pathogens. The particular process of securing cells from the destruction is called Xenophagy. It has been widely affected for some of bacterial infections. It is given the powerful role of autophagy in tumor suppression.
They are eukaryotic cells. They are varied in terms of sizes and shapes, mostly ranging between 1 and 100 micrometers and visible only through a microscope. They differ with plant cells because animal cells lack cell walls and chloroplasts, and have smaller vacuoles. Due to the
The non-specific resistance of gram-negative bacteria is recognized as a limitation in the treatments of infections of these organisms. However, the general pattern of resistance is well known and stable, so that drugs are prescribed of which the infecting organism are not inherently resistant. Bacteria can develop resistance to antibiotics usually but not always after exposure to the antibiotics, this type of resistance results from changes in the bacterial genome. In bacteria, acquired resistance is driven by two genetic processes, which are mutation and selection that are
There are currently known that over 170 amino acids occur in organisms but only 20 are commonly found in proteins. R groups determine the chemical properties of the amino acids. The simplest amino acids have hydrocarbons as side chains which are neutral and non-polar or hydrophobic. They are not soluble in water. Amino acids with a polar R group are neutral and polar or hydrophilic.
Gene therapy is now considered a new therapeutic area of study in modern medicine. Genes are special segments of DNA that provide the information to the body to properly function. It involves the transfer of genetic information into the tissues and organs of patients. As a result, it can be used to eliminate diseased genes or restore their normal functions. Another application of gene therapy involves the inclusion of different function to the cells, in order to either fight cancer or other diseases.
Insulin is an antibiotic which is prescribed for diabetic patients. Now insulin can be synthesized from microorganisms like bacteria and yeast. Vaccines are also derived from microorganisms. The microorganisms that cause the infectious diseases are usually the sources of vaccines. • FOOD AND AGRICULTURE- Production of many foods is possible with the help of microorganisms.
Cells, the smallest unit of life, make up all living organisms. Humans are made up of over a trillion cells; red blood cells, white blood cells, skin cells, and more, are all a part of what composes the human body. But, cells also make up the body and structure of bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi, plants, and animals. They can be comprised into two different categories: the eukaryotic cells and the prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles and a membrane-bound nucleus, while prokaryotic cells have no membrane-bound organelles and no membrane-bound nucleus.