As unitary system in the U.S and the diverse interests of different states made confederation impossible to run over. Then, Federalism was the only choice left. Federalism in the U.S has developed reasonably since it was first instigated in 1787. At that time, two major breeds of federalism were dictating the legislation; dual federalism and cooperative federalism. Dual federalism supposed that the state and federal governments are equivalents.
This was a problem because the ratio of population to the 1 representative was unfair. Another problematic example with the Articles of confederation were that the government could not tax people. This idea seems great when you are a person of the country, but in reality it soon backfires. The government then had no money to build roads, or schools, or do anything because it did have have any money. This is the resulting of no taxes.
It was not perfect. Flaws in the weak central government, and weak state governments proved problem some. The inability to displace riots, collect taxes, and a functioning army, made effective governance nearly impossible. The Federalist and the Anti-federalist both supported arguments for their ideological differences. Mainly, differing on who would assume most of the power in the governing structure.
Before the war slaves where considered three fifths of one. Once the black slaves were given their freedom they would then be considered as on instead of three fifths of one. The black codes are another reason why reconstruction was such a bad failure. “The Black Codes were a collection of laws that were created by southern states” (Chp22. n.d. Part 1: Why did Reconstruction fail so badly?
Dual Federalism is where each government, state and federal, has clear, exclusive control over certain areas, which leads some to call this “layer-cake federalism” since there is a clear line between the two (Christiansen). At its start, the national government did not spend as much as the states, so therefore, it had less power. During the time of the Great Depression, people looked to the national government for help, and President Roosevelt gave it to them in the form of grant-in-aid. This in turn gave the national government more power since they now had a bargaining chip over the state’s heads (Christiansen). This period is referred to as Cooperative Federalism and can be described as a “marble cake” since there are now overlapping areas of policy.
Moreover, the South thought that they suffered economically from the Union. They complained that the various charges that “added some 20 percent to the cost of cotton and other commodities went into the pockets of northern merchants…” It resembled the colonists’ complaint on the Navigation Acts, which gave British merchants monopoly on trades. Also economically, the South suffered because of the various bans on slavery. Davis said, “plantation slavery rapidly wear out soil, the South needed fresh land for an expanding population.” The South felt that they had lost much fortune because of the federal government. Similarly, the Proclamation of 1763 also prevented the Americans from acquiring new land.
When I read this statement, I thought that it was a fair law, because even though there was only one branch of government, each state had an equal representation, which meant that small states such as New Jersey would have the same amount of power as large states, such as Virginia. This quote made me think about checks and balances, which help watch the other government branches
Under the Articles of Confederation, the United States government was in shambles. Having left the rule of the British Crown, the States desired a government far from their previous predecessor. However, having given tremendous power to the states and very little to the federal, there was much chaos. A prime example of the failure of this document was Shay’s Rebellion, when farmers rebelled against government officials for debt that they could not repay due to faults in the Articles. Consequently, a new Constitution had to be ratified which resulted in many compromises between the Federalists and Anti-Federalists.
Even if the popular vote brings the majority closer to it, there is a more effective way of voting for candidates than the Electoral College, while making as many voices heard. The founding fathers built an excellent system for their times, but it has been centuries and their principles are outdated. People cry for a more fair way of electing a president, to get rid of the Electoral College. The TPAE is the most effective way of making it not to complex to vote nor is it hard to implement. The only wall that needs to be jumped are all of the states following through with this system, it could give us extra time to think of something
They were well-intentioned, however, the Articles proved to be quite problematic and not entirely functional. One of the major issues was the way that government powers were organized. Under the Articles, the Continental Congress consisted of only one body (this is referred to as "unicameralism"). The problem with unicameralism is that it often leads to a misrepresentation of the minority and can lead to an imbalance of the distribution of power. It is difficult to exercise separation of powers and federalism, or shared power between state and
The people at the convention couldn’t agree how slaves should be counted in official population measurements (Morone and Kersh 65). Population measurements would be used for tax purposes, and number of congressmen (“The Three-Fifth Compromise”) . Some southern states had a high percentage of slaves (Morone and Kersh 65). If we take that into account, then it is no surprise that southern states wanted slaves to be counted as whole people. Eventually though, it was decided that slaves would be considered 3/5 of a free person for official population statistics (Morone and Kersh 65).
Federalism is just a fancy word for the powers given to the states, to the central government, and powers the two share. Document A states that the central government can regulate trade, conduct foreign relations and declare war. The states can set up local governments, hold elections and establish schools. As James Madison said, “The different governments will each control each other, at the same time that each will be controlled by itself.” What James Madison is trying to say is that the central and state governments have enough power that they don’t control everything. The central government has enough power to help some of the country’s major needs and the state government has enough power to help the state’s needs because the state’s needs may be more specific.