The ideas of the philosophes were not directly responsible for the outbreak…[but] the spark that changed thought into action was supplied by the Declaration of American Independence.” As supporters of American Independence, Frenchmen are familiar with that “news”. Being influenced by both events, revolution occurred. Also, with the invention of printing press, thoughts went faster than ever through cartoons and articles. However, we must see that those articles have preferences, and they are somehow propaganda-like. As a result, they may be exaggerating the miserable side to smear their enemies.
For starters, the reader must be aware of historical events that had occurred and were occurring to understand the historical context of Candide. Prior to the Enlightenment in Voltaire’s time, the Reformation took place. The Reformation, often referred to as the Protestant Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity that exposed the corruption in the church with the main goal to reform it. As a result, new revolutionary ideas about individualism and rationality materialized. Furthermore, the Enlightenment was born years later.
Tim Blanning is a leading scholar in the Enlightenment through the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. In his book “The Romantic Revolution” he argues that we must “... Enter the world of the romantics by the routes they chose themselves”. [ Tim Blanning, The romantic revolution, (London, 2010) ] This mean that to fully understand the romantic era we must know or experience it’s many appearances in literature, music and art. His book is filled with references to operas, paintings and novels from the time of the Romantic Revolution.
But along the course of human history, something had gone wrong. Humans created the idea of private property, something that Rousseau was against. He wrote, “How many crimes, wars, murders; how much misery and horror the human race would have spared if someone had pulled up the stakes and filled in the ditch, and cried to his fellow men… ‘the fruits of the earth belong to everyone and that the earth itself belongs to no one!’” With this concept of private property came laws and governors, the start of humans becoming shackled in chains. As historian Jackson Spielvogel put it, “government was an evil, but a necessary one.” As Rousseau premised in The Social Contract, “the problem is to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate, and in which each, while uniting himself with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before.” Rousseau presented this solution in his treatise, The Social Contract, saying, “Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole.” If everyone were to buy in on the idea of the social contract and create a general will, then society would be in its most perfect
Correspondingly, there were also several events that took place during the significant time of protest during the French Revolution that introduced a big difference. Overall, the French Revolution was a time of misery, fear, protest, death, and in the end, a new beginning. Obviously, there were many key causes that certainly helped start the French Revolution. One of the prime causes of the beginning of the French Revolution was the unfair distribution of wealth and authority. This negatively affected all of the peasants in France.
Xunzi, in Chapter 23 of his book, stresses on the regulation of natural human feelings to bring about virtue or man would resort to violence. Xunzi claims that people are born with desires and a fondness of profits. Two prominent examples of this nature are the Nazi totalitarian regime and African Slavery. In both these cases, a group of people were discriminated against and exploited for personal gain. The Jews in Europe, and the Africans in the United States, were treated like substandard citizens, and were violently abused and murdered.
1. The main reasons why the French Revolution started were because of Louis XVI. Louis XVI reduced privileges and increased taxes because of France 's action in the American Independence War. This caused the people of France to go against their king. The French Revolution was so violent that it caused the destruction of the monarchy and it also caused King Louis XVI to be executed.
A few enlightened rulers, such as Frederick the Great of Prussia, were patrons of radical writers and thinkers, fostering the growth of new ideas. Notable figures like the radical philosopher and campaigner, Thomas Paine, influenced the French and American revolutions that took place at the end of the century, and Mary Wollstonecraft pioneered feminist ideas in her writings. Atheism was uncommon and persecuted, but criticism of organized religion and traditional religious beliefs was widespread, often coupled with radical political ideas. Religious skepticism became more common in eighteenth century as a consequence of the development of a more scientific view of the universe. The Scottish philosopher, David Hume wrote very critically about miracles and religion.
By doing this, they overthrown the poorly run government as the Russian people were in favour of a new system that would work in their favour. The Russian Revolution was triggered by the social, political and economic problems, that combined caused the Russian people to rebel. This Revolution was triggered by the poverty of the Russian people, the loss from the wars, the sneakiness of Rasputin and the failure of the Tsar, Nicholas II. The social causes of the Russian Revolution arose from centuries of oppression towards the lower classes. The lower class had to deal with horrifying living standards and food shortages due to famine and World War 1.
A very significant event that occurred in France was The French Revolution. From 1789 to the late 1790s, the French Revolution was making a huge impact on the politics of France. France saw what the U.S. had done between the American Revolution and their fight for freedom. They thought that since the U.S. could overcome tyranny, maybe they could too. Although this was not the root cause of the French Revolution, it had a part in the causes.