As many scholars said, there is no doubt that French-revolution is the very historical milestone because it became the cause of democracy. Republic system of government, now we regard as if it were common sense, was set up through this revolution. Public citizens supersede privileged class people to become the bearer of the culture, economy and politics. In French-revolution, people sacrifice royal bloods in return for dawn a new age. Then, here I have one question: How French-revolution has been occurred?
The idea expressed by Rousseau in The People Should Have Power that “Man is born free. No man has any natural authority over others, force does not give anyone that right. The power to make laws belongs to the people and only to the people” influenced people who been suppressed by the royals and the aristocrats, and the independence of the United States is a perfect example for the Frenchmen to follow. Some people, such as historian Albert Mathiez, claims that leadership fell to the middle class with their knowledge of the ideas of the Enlightenment that “The middle class… was sensitive to their inferior legal position. The Revolution came from them- the middle class.
People elected other people that they trusted to go represent them in government. Ideas that were formed by the enlightenment philosophers were used in the new government. The French, however, did not make significant progress toward ending absolutism and instead were subject to another absolute ruler immediately after the revolution. After the French revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte became emperor. In this role, Bonaparte had absolute power over France.
Absolutism is an important topic in European history. The most famous absolutist ruler in Europe was Louis XIV of France, also called the Sun King. He characterized absolutism in France in the 17th and 18th century with the famous quote “L’État, c’est moi!” or in English “I am the State!”. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, absolutism can be defined as the political doctrine and practice of unlimited, centralized authority and absolute sovereignty. It is a form of government, where one ruler has the absolute power and the people have no saying in political decisions.
MONTESQUIEU’S VIEW ON SEPARATION OF POWERS INTRODUCTION: Montesquieu (1689 - 1755), was a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. Montesquieu 's most influential work divided French society into three classes: • The monarchy, • The aristocracy, • The commons. Montesquieu saw two types of governmental power existing: the sovereign and the administrative. The administrative powers were the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.
Revolutions were indisputably a crucial part during the 1700s and 1800s. Revolutions are primarily defined and recognized as a sudden or great change for the better. In particular, one prominent revolution that occurred in the late 1700s is none other than the French Revolution. The French Revolution eventually led to the development of new political forces. Also, it questioned the jurisdiction of the king, priests, and nobles.
However, the French revolution had led France to dictatorship and tens of years’ chaos after that. There was endless struggles between the left wing and the right wing during the French revolution. Although the left has published the Declaration of the rights of man, since the political environment was so unstable, that didn 't really changed the society into a republic. After “The Terror” which killed 40,000 people, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned as an Emperor, a dictator of France. Then, after Napoleon died, monarchy and republic appeared alternately.
influential and successful military leaders in history, who changed warfare with innovative tactics. Though, his reign was brief, but brought much glory to France and stabilized the uprooted country followed by the French Revolution in 1789. He introduced economic reforms and a Civil Code that became the model for most of Europe and beyond. Historical Background 2. Napoleon Bonaparte was born in the year 1769, in Corsica, an island in France.
The Napoleonic Wars, and the French Revolution preceding it, helped drive innovation in warfare, culture, and drastically changed the political landscape; even now, it still has an enduring legacy. Background The French Revolution was integral leading up to the beginning of the Napoleonic wars. The intent of the revolution was to establish Enlightenment and democratic ideals, such as equal opportunity, free speech, and a democracy. Between the late 1780’s and the 1790’s, France was at war with itself, and a power vacuum became prevalent. Consequently, there was chaos in the streets.
Napoleon Bonaparte has been the topic of historical debates and discussions since the end of his reign in 1815. Historians and scholars alike have analyzed his early years, his rise to power, his military conquests, his political actions during his reign, and his legacy on the modern state of France. Despite deeply negative criticisms of Napoleon’s motives, he is celebrated by many as a hero of French history. Napoleon is considered, by many, to be a “man of the Revolution” who ushered in a new era for France and paved the way for European integration. European integration is a theory based on the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe, or in simpler terms, European integration is known as “a Europe without borders.” On the opposite end, there are those who question the triumphant representations of Napoleon and dispute the claims that his success was based upon his conquest of Europe.