A. Have you ever got a flu shot before? Getting an annual flu vaccine is the first
“Certainty creates strength. Certainty creates something upon which to lean. Uncertainty creates weakness…” This two sentence antithesis is directly parallel to his later statement, “It is not the courage to venture into the unknown. It is the courage to accept- indeed, embrace- uncertainty.” These corresponding explain the societal views of certainty and uncertainty, maintaining that uncertainty is negative and a sign of weakness. However, the second quotes contradicts that viewpoint by emphasizing that a more notable trait, courage, is present in the less favorable condition. Barry parallels the two in order to express how researchers work in uncertain conditions and that the courage it takes to do this is immense. In the fifth paragraph Barry questions how a researcher chooses their means of excavation and analyzation. This paragraph is focused on the use of questions in order to show the number of possible decisions that can be made and that must be made in order to gain results. Barry uses this to show how researchers must make decisions on how to do something while not having a very structured knowledge foundation for that specific topic of interest. Together, the uses of these similar structures allows for a more cohesive train of thought about the characteristics of scientific
How do we know what is true? How do we know if a man sentenced to death was truly a murderer? A question echoed by thousands of people revolting against the death penalty as the story of Todd Willingham made it to the headlines. In The New Yorker, under the title of Trial by Fire, came the terrifying enigma: “Did Texas execute an innocent man?” followed by a thorough listing of the evidence that was used to convict Willingham of setting his house on fire and resulting in the death of his three children, and how they were later disproved.
Scientific literacy is the ability to use the scientific process of logical deduction in everyday life. This has made it very important in modern society ever since the 16th century. As Hurd (1997) states, important figures throughout history such as Thomas Jefferson, James Wilkinson and Herbert Spencer have advocated for an education that propagates scientific literacy as an important building block of society. However, there is a massive debate regarding the medium this propagation should take place. There are two sides to the debate, the first being the teachers who use typical teaching mechanisms to advocate scientific literacy while the other side are the teachers who prefer the unconventional instead (Balraj & Pandian, 2010). Textbooks and proprietary media CDs are considered
Barry says, "a shovel can dig up dirt, but cannot penetrate a rock. Would a pick be best, or would dynamite be better- or would dynamite be too indiscriminately destructive?" Barry talks about science as if it was the wilderness. In the wilderness, there are many surprises that can occur at any moment. There are holes that you could step right over, not knowing it may have been the answer or may have been needed. During science you have to expect some theories to go south, or to go wrong. When a theory does not work you have to question your work and began to think of another theory to make sure you do not miss the holes you missed the first time. Barry uses this metaphor to show readers that scientists often question themselves continuously.
Organelles as organism is from The Lives of a cell authored by Lewis Thomas. Thomas uses a unique writing style that is very recognizable and different from the others. This helps us to appreciate our diversity as human beings demonstrated by our abilities to write differently. As a reader one is able to form an image of who Thomas is by how he expresses his feelings and attitudes. When this text was written a lot of people, mostly scientists, thought and had knowledge of different things than they do now. Science has greatly evolved over the years, there are new discoveries each time, and it’s a fact that right now we know a lot than we did thirty-five years ago.
In the start of the passage, the author makes the point that to be a scientist is to be uncertain. “A scientist must accept the fact that all his or her work, even beliefs, may break apart upon the sharp edge of a single laboratory finding” (Line 14). Science is about finding out the truth. One cannot do that if he is held back by a sacred belief. Science is brave in this respect because the scientist might find out that how he lives his life is wrong. Science is about being uncertain because nothing is absolute. Most scientists used to hold that Newton’s Three Laws of Motions were absolutely perfect. Albert Einstein showed that Newton’s Laws where only good up to a point, and that a further explanation was required. There are no absolutes in science.
In the first paragraph Barry uses repetition numerous times with the words such as “certainty and uncertainty”. This is also an example of compare and contrast, he compares certainty with uncertantiy.By using these words he tells the reader that to be a scientist you need both certainty as well as uncertainty. The first paragraph also includes examples of logos; when Barry says “to be a scientist requires not only intelligence and curiosity, but passion, patience, creativity, self sufficient, and courage”. One can agree that the sentence is an example of logos because it is a logical statement that to be a scientist you have to have all of those traits. The whole passage is about scientists as well as scientific research, Barry writes with a purpose and the purpose is to tell people about scientists as well as what it takes.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth century, many scientists had developed a new perspective on the world around them. Scientists such as Galileo and Copernicus envisioned a world where natural phenomenons could be proved through experimentation. Furthermore, the work of scientists during this time period were affected by the approval of political figures, the support from influential members of the church, and social factors that influenced the development and acceptance of new theories.
Barry’s use of syntax to effectively state his argument, his use of diction to allow the reader to comprehend the meaning of a phrase, and the allegories to add further emphasis to his main points all are important rhetorical strategies. These strategies don’t just emphasize the important of certainty and how it can benefit the field of science, but they also describe how uncertainty can also impact discoveries and how it can prohibit discoveries from being
Barry expresses the need for a scientist to possess “passion, patience, creativity, self-sufficiency, and courage” (Barry 7-8). He further explicates the word courage as not a pivot by which the pioneer dashes into the unknown but as the beacon by which the investigator must accept, utilize, and even “embrace” (Barry 10). Barry also uses diction to support the ultimatum he presents as the character of scientific research by using the word “ultimately” in lines 19 and 49. The word “ultimately” is a readily usable term that reiterates the finality of any notion, and Barry makes excellent use of it because it allows him to create a profound characterization of scientific research— his ultimatum revolves around the uncertainty which paradoxically captures the meaning of scientific research as concrete theorization founded upon infinite possibility. The pandering of intellectual curiosity to physical emotions is an irony that is not lost on Barry; he reaffirms that “to move forcefully and aggressively” requires “confidence and strength deeper than physical courage” (Barry 20-22). The diction of Barry’s study gives the reader a comprehension that physical notions and intellectual thought have boundaries that are not as defined as they may
He thought there was something special on the science side of the line. Under the assumption that science has suitable methodology for avoiding false beliefs, one of the problems with pseudo-science is that it gets an unfair development by mimicking the surface appearance of science.
Suddenly there’s moaning and snarling coming from outside look and there’s a giant horde of zombies. Survivors need to know what to do? People need to know what zombies are. Zombies’ brain eat monsters that came out of the ground. But some zombies can be created by viruses’ and vu do. In the last of us (video game) the zombie outbreak was from a zombie ant. When the zombie ant bite someone fungal residue on a human’s face and other parts of the body. The virus took 60% of the human’s species. If you don’t want to see people grow mushrooms out of head fallow the steps and rules that will tell how to survive the ZOMBIE APOCALYPSE!
With each new discovery, our prior knowledge is either being further proved or disputed. Robust knowledge refers to knowledge claims that have withstood these constant challenges and have not been disproven, despite any attempts to disprove it. However, the claim that “robust knowledge requires both consensus and disagreement” is justifiably false to me, in certain areas of knowledge. I believe that this claim is entirely false in the mathematics area of knowledge but can be true in the natural sciences area of knowledge. The reason for my belief is that the claim explicitly states that “Robust knowledge requires both consensus and disagreement”. While this claim may be true, especially in the context of today’s political tumult where every
Enhancing the scientific literacy of students has been a goal of science educator for more than a century. Discussion of the aims of science education often begin with ‘scientific literacy’. Scientific literacy is a term that has been used since the late 1950s to describe a desired familiarity with science on the part of the general public (Deboer, G.E., 2000). Scientific literacy plays an important role in human daily life. Many definition have been put forward for scientific literacy. To define the scientific literacy many science educator as well as organization such as National Research Council (NRC) and American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) draw frameworks and tried to describe the characteristics of scientifically