Hawaiian Monk Seal Research Paper

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The Hawaiian Monk Seal (Neomonachus schauislandi) is a primitive, non-migratory phocid endemic to the islands of Hawaii (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2007). These primarily aquatic pinnipeds spend two-thirds of their lives in the water but require some land, often sandy beaches, to haul-out for reproduction and rest (NMFS, 2007). Monk seals have a polygynous mating structure but precise mating behavior and dominance establishment is unknown because they are aquatic processes not often observed (Jefferson et al., 1993). Females begin giving birth around age five to nine with each female producing a single pup every year (Johanos et al., 1994). After giving birth, females will stay and nurse their pups while fasting and energetically supporting

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