The Hawaiian monk seal, or Monachus schauinslandi, was one of the original species to be placed under the Endangered Species Act that was enacted in 1973. As of 2010, the population of the monk seal is approximately 1,100, with an annual decrease of approximately 4.5%. The Hawaiian monk seal is primarily found on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands that are made up of coral reef atolls, seamounts, banks, and shoals. This is due to the fact that the monk seals primarily forage on the barrier reefs of the atolls, on submerged reefs, and on banks further from the atolls (Curtice et al, 2011). The monk seals primarily like to look for food on the surface of the ocean floor and will search for food in depths up to 500 meters. (National Marine Fisheries …show more content…
Humans were not around at the time the monk seals arrived, and the monk seals are more commonly found in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands that are less inhibited by people compared to the Main Hawaiian Islands with a larger human population (Lowry et al, 2011). The Hawaiian monk seal population has been in a rise and fall ever since the discovery of the monk seals by a Russian explorer in 1805. Due to its discovery, the monk seal population virtually died out by the mid 1800’s due to the commercial seal hunting and being killed for food by sailors and whalers (Lowry et al, 2011). Until the mid 1900’s, the seals were never seen and thought to be extinct because they were never seen by hunters or sailors, but the first beach count survey was taken in 1958, showing a slight recovery (Schultz et al, 2010). Another decline was also seen during the 1960’s-1970’s that showed a 75% decrease in number of monk seals seen on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Gilmartin et al, …show more content…
The number one priority should be to increase the survival rates of the female juvenile monk seals; doing so will ultimately increase the population size. With the programs such as Head Start and the translocation program at French Frigate Shoals, there was evidence of improvement in the monk seal population, but as always there was a decline that followed. The current Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Monk Seal states that for the monk seal to be downlisted from endangered to threatened, the population needs to be more than 2,900 individuals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and that at least 5 of the 6 main sub-populations need to have more than 100 individuals (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2007). For this to occur, the main criteria that needs to be addressed is the pup and juvenile survival rates. The Hawaiian monk seal population cannot continue to survive and grow if less juvenile female pups are reaching reproductive age and not surviving, this has caused the current decrease in Hawaiian monk seal populations to continue to decrease and to decrease more rapidly (Norris et al, 2011). To do this, more projects such as Head Start need to be planned and implemented to help save the shrinking population. For example, an additional research and rehabilitation center on either the French Frigate Shoal or Green Island could be used and would be extremely beneficial.
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The Hawaiian Monk Seal (Neomonachus schauislandi) is a primitive, non-migratory phocid endemic to the islands of Hawaii (National Marine Fisheries Service, 2007). These primarily aquatic pinnipeds spend two-thirds of their lives in the water but require some land, often sandy beaches, to haul-out for reproduction and rest (NMFS, 2007). Monk seals have a polygynous mating structure but precise mating behavior and dominance establishment is unknown because they are aquatic processes not often observed (Jefferson et al., 1993). Females begin giving birth around age five to nine with each female producing a single pup every year (Johanos et al., 1994). After giving birth, females will stay and nurse their pups while fasting and energetically supporting
The decrease of the population is due to a number of threats. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) states that: The monk seal population is currently declining at about 4% annually and is estimated at around 1,200 individuals. Hunted to the brink of extinction in the late 19th century, Hawaiian monk seals have been declining since modern surveying began. Biologists predict this number will dip below 1,000 in the next few years, placing this species among the world's most endangered (Hawaiian Monk Seal Monachus schauinslandi 15). We cannot go back to the 19th century and save the monk seals from getting killed at that time.
Likewise, compared to those diets enjoyed by groups in northern California and the Pacific Northwest as far back as 4000 B.C., which were rich with nutritious stock like fish and shellfish, the game-hunting in the east was less reliable. While at first the big animals of the continent were bountiful to the newfound populations they had not yet learned to fear, their numbers quickly dwindled during the “Pleistocene overkill” (Page, 36). One area whose populations did not suffer from the absence of these large mammals was the Pacific coast, an observation that is notable despite the real absence of what were likely some of the most informational sites that archaeologists could have hoped to
During one of my weekly walks at the La Jolla cove, I stumbled across this little seal attempting to reach the dry land on the beach. He continually attempted to reach the sand, even after being brought back to see multiple times by the waves. Finally, after what seemed like an eternity the seal reached the beach and created a spot of his own. During this entire ordeal, the rest of the seals and sea lions sat on a rock centered in the middle of the cove and watched as the seal sought to reach dry land. As I was observing the seal I realized that just like this seal sometimes the goals you aspire to reach are not the same as the majority, That as you attempt to reach these goals those who surround you will not aid as they have maintained the
There is always a new bandwagon for false activists, and one of the most popular is the cause of freeing captured killer whales. For some, this is not just the latest fad, but it has been a life long devotion which has been the focus of their passion since the mid twentieth century. These creature are majestic and need to be protected. They were named after this frightening figure because of their brutal reputation in the wild. In Latin, the word Orca can literally be translated to barrel-shaped, thus referring to the large and cylindrical shape of the killer whale 's body.
Last year, over 600 manatees were counted by plane just in kings bay. In the past years, it has been 350 to 450, which was before all the rules were put into play. There have also been way less cold related deaths of the manatees, which is the leading cause of deaths. This is proof that the manatees are more comfortable in the new environment we have created for them to live in. Even with all these regulations, we can still make it a better environment for them yet.
Journalist Ashley Pierce observed that, in the wild, male orcas live to an average of sixty-five years while females live an average of ninety years. The natural environment creates more than double the lifespan faced in captivity (Pierce 1). Orcas live a shortened lifespan in captivity because the whales can not handle the lack of space given. Over a period of the orcas’ life in confinement, results in the bodies shutting down more and more every day. The Beacham 's Guide to the Endangered Species of North America, expresses that, orcas venture throughout the Pacific Ocean within the whales lifespan (Killer Whale 1).
The lecturer and the reading passage offer two theories to explain why the sea otter population is in rapid decline. The two theories are predation theory and pollution theory. The professor argues predation is the more likely cause than pollution because of the absence of dead sea otters washing up on shores. However, the reading passage attributes the decline of the sea otters population based on evidence of increased ocean contaminates leading to greater vulnerability to infections.
My grandfather is a well known for his avid role in encouraging the conservation of Hawaiian land and natural resources. From a very young age, as in when I could swim, I spent many weekdays and nights cleaning and repairing the Captain Cook Monument. We used his double hull glass bottom canoe to travel around the bay looking for
Although the orca can be found in both in the open ocean and in the coastal waters, they primarily inhabit the continental shelf’s in the water less than 200 meters deep. In the cold water area is the most distribution limited by the seasonal pack ice. The killer whale is the top carnivore consumer on the food web. Killer whales may be large in size and appetite, but they still act on instinct and have no desire to kill intentionally. The killer whale is also a very playful and intelligent creature like most dolphins are, therefore they do not deserve the name killer whale.
Since present efforts offer a very limited protection of the manatee, it is critical that the ability to establish further efforts be preserved. Furthermore, the symbolic nature of the downgrade may give the public a false impression that the manatee population is stable and sustainable, and give rise to efforts to retract current protective efforts, which are already ruffling
One of the main reasons polar bears are going extinct is because they aren’t getting the right amount of food they need to survive. Seals, the main food source for the polar bears, are animals that depend largely on the algae that grows on the ice of the Arctic. With the ice content slowly depleting, there isn’t enough seals to sustain the polar bear population. One of the