BIOLOGY REPORT Title: Mammalian heart dissection Name: Lambert Ntashamaje Co-worker’s Name: Marc Koussi Date of Experiment: 13th January 2017 Words count: 1.Introduction: The aim of this experiment is to observe internal structure of a mammalian heart. The objective of this experiment is check how heart chambers, vessels and valves of the heart help the heart to achieve its function of pumping blood all over the body. In addition, this experiment would help us understand the double circulation of blood and reasons why it is vital for mammalian organisms. Due to the complexity of mammalian organisms, the exchanges of substances such as oxygen, nutrients and hormones cannot rely on diffusion itself (Kent, 2013). The transportation …show more content…
Furthermore, left side of the heart was still thicker than the right side of the heart. Figure3: Internal part of right side of the heart During the experiment, a scissors was used to cut the heart through the side of pulmonary artery alongside anterior interventricular artery; the cutting continued down into the wall of right ventricle. The anterior interventricular artery, which is the direct continuation of the left coronary artery descends into anterior interventricular groove. This artery also sends a branch to the moderator band and the anterior papillary muscle of the tricuspid valve (right ventricle), which is reasonable that the moderator is part of the septomarginal trabeculae of the interventricular septum; this artery is often called moderator artery (Laizzo, …show more content…
The natural pacemakers of the heart called SA (Sino-atrial) node. SA is in the grooves where the superior vena cava meets the right atrium. After SA generates electrical signals, the cardiac impulse travels across the walls of the atria causing the atria to contract. The impulses generated by the SA node are also transmitted to the atrioventricular (AV) node located in the lower part of the right atrium near the right ventricle. When the electrical signals reach the ventricle walls from pacemakers, ventricles contract and builds up the pressure which pushes blood and opens semilunar valves. Bibliography: Crick, S.J., Sheppard, M.N., HO, S.Y., Gebstein, L., Anderson, R.H., 1998. Anatomy of the pig heart: comparisons with normal human cardiac structure. J. Anat. 193, 105–119. Kent, M., 2013. Advanced biology, 2nd ed. Laizzo, P., 2016. HANDBOOK OF CARDIAC ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND DEVICES. SPRINGER, S.l. Larsen, C.E., Trip, R., Johnson, C.R., 1996. Methods for procedures related to the electrophysiology of the heart. Nageswari, K.S., 2007. Handouts on cardiovascular system. Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi. Pickering, W.R., Pickering, W.R., 2002. AS & A level human biology through diagrams. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Snell, R.S., 2008. Clinical anatomy by regions, 8th ed. ed. Wolters Kluwer, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,
The Pintails heart is like a mammals consisting of four chambers, two ventricles and two atria. The left ventricle pumps blood to all major organs in the body and throughout the rest, only excluding the lungs. This causes the left ventricle to be larger and more muscular. The lungs are fed blood from the right ventricle, which is the only the only function of that ventricle. The oxygenated blood coming from the lungs is fully separated from the oxygenated blood coming from other parts of the body.
Generate: Heart auscultation is useful in characterizing heart sounds and identifying abnormalities that may suggest cardiac dysfunction.1 The fourth heart sound (S4 atrial gallop), heard during the patient’s physical examination, is often an abnormal finding due to reduction in ventricular wall compliance.1,2 Additionally, S4 occurs due to rapid deceleration of active blood flow due to a nondistensible ventricle.2 S4 can be heard in patients with hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and acute myocardial infarction (AMI).1,2
A bundle branch block anatomy involves the heart, but specifically the electrical nodes of the heart and the chambers of the heart. The electrical nodes of the body act as a pacemaker to help the heart correctly beat. The sinoatrial node (SA node) will send impulses to help the heart to contract. This impulse is sent to the upper chamber of the heart and then passes through the atrioventricular node (AV node). This impulse is sent through a pathway
Heart, lungs and the Rest of You By: Olivia Abel 1.Explain how the blood flows throughout your lungs, heart and the rest of your body. Heart: Your left and right side of your heart work together to pump blood to and throughout your body which is separated by muscular tissue called the septum. In the right side blood enters through two large vein which are the inferior and superior vena cava, emptying poor oxygen blood from the body to the right reticulum. When the left side enters from the pulmonary veins and empties oxygen rich blood from the lungs into the aorta going throughout the body.
The TEM showed the cardiac muscle structure in the untouched hearts in a Z-shape (a, b), while the regenerating heart cell arrangement began disconnecting and created lots of space between the cells (c, d). The myosin seen in the normal heart turns out to be disorganized (f), and after 7 days the space was once again present (e, f). Around the 7th day, the distortion of the cell structure increased, resembling those with BrdU. However, TUNEL proved that the cardiomyocytes appeared normal and showed no signs of apoptosis. Cells with the PH3 marker showed no signs of noticeable sarcomeric organization, while PCNA-positive cells showed the
The left ventricle is the primary pumping chamber, and heart failure normally begins on the left side. At the point when the left ventricle can't contract enough, it is called systolic heart failure. At the point when the left ventricle can't load with enough blood, it is called diastolic heart failure. You can have a blend of both sorts of heart
Because of this inability to contract effectively, the rest of the vital organs receive inadequate amount of blood resulting to inadequate tissue perfusion. There are two types of left-sided HF; systolic and diastolic failure. Systolic failure happens when the left ventricle doesn’t have the enough energy to pump normally the blood to the general circulation. As for diastolic failure, the left ventricle loses the ability to fill itself with blood during resting period resulting to inadequate amount of blood to be pumped out to the circulation (Weinrauch, 2008). The diastolic dysfunction will eventually lead to right-sided heart failure.
Next, they traced the external jugular vein and its tributary veins on the surface of the right side of the neck and head. On the left side where the sternomastoid was cut, the students then located the deeper vessels running alongside the trachea, internal jugular vein, and the common carotid artery. In the abdominal cavity, the groups then exposed and studied the hepatic portal vein and its tributaries. They then identified the tributaries of the post cava, the renal, adrenolumbar, iliolumbar, iliac, and caudal vessels. The arteries of the gonads then came off the abdominal aorta cranial where the spermatic arteries were found.
The heart of the pig two larger tubes, and four smaller tubes. The heart was black near the back of it because of the blood build up. The heart was about the size of the pig’s foot and was smooth and squishy. The hearts over all color was pinkish red. It was surrounded by lots of blood vessels and tissue.
The blood flow of the heart starts at the superior and inferior vena cava. The superior vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the upper body into the right atrium, while the inferior vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body into the right atrium. As blood is pooled inside the right atrium, it will passively flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The tricuspid valve is simply a one-way valve that prevents backflow of blood.
Further improvements in its sensitivity, and size were made, and adapted from the field of Obstetrics and Gynecology to Cardiology, to be used in echocardiography. Such a development allowed for improved methods of understanding the heart condition of patients and allowed the quality of cardiac healthcare to be increased since aliments of the heart might be determined without resorting to surgery or using harmful chemicals, even though it is in low