1. What type of shock is John exhibiting signs of? [1 mark] Give a rationale for your answer and relate this to four  of John’s clinical symptoms and observations. [4 marks for clinical symptoms & 4 marks for observations] The type of shock John is exhibiting is cardiogenic shock. This type of shock occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood effectively. This is evident to patients who have had myocardial infarction, such as John’s case. In this illness, the heart has decreased contractility resulting to decreased cardiac output. Such decrease will stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to activate the compensatory mechanism by increasing the heart rate as evident in John’s vital sign to increase the peripheral pressure and ventricular …show more content…
Because of this inability to contract effectively, the rest of the vital organs receive inadequate amount of blood resulting to inadequate tissue perfusion. There are two types of left-sided HF; systolic and diastolic failure. Systolic failure happens when the left ventricle doesn’t have the enough energy to pump normally the blood to the general circulation. As for diastolic failure, the left ventricle loses the ability to fill itself with blood during resting period resulting to inadequate amount of blood to be pumped out to the circulation (Weinrauch, 2008). The diastolic dysfunction will eventually lead to right-sided heart failure. Pulmonary edema or congestion happens when the left ventricle of the heart fails. This is simply because the inefficiency of its ventricle to pump effectively causes the blood to back up to the pulmonary capillaries as the pulmonary venous blood rises its pressure into the tissues and alveoli impairing the gas exchange. Pulmonary congestion will be manifested in crackles, difficulty of breathing, frothy pink-tinged sputum and shortness of breath. In addition, the decreased amount of blood ejected from the left side causes ineffective tissue perfusion. This is detrimental to other vital organs such as the kidneys. The low amount of blood delivered to the kidneys causes inadequate renal perfusion. When this happens, renin is released to secrete aldosterone, a vasoconstrictor that promotes sodium and fluid retention. Aldosterone increases the preload to increase the systolic volume (Moreau, 2006). However, this is counterproductive in the long run because an increase in the preload will wear out the heart by working double time as well as increasing lung congestion. The heart failure causes multiple organ failure in chronic conditions such as altered digestion, decreased brain perfusion
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysShow More
This allow desaturated blood to shunt right to left side, causing desaturation in the left side of the heart and in the systemic circulation causing hypoxia and cyanosis. PULMONARY ATRESIA / PULMONARY STENOSIS Pulmonary Stenosis is the narrowing at the entrance to the pulmonary artery causing right ventricular hypertrophy. Pulmonary Atresia is the severe form of pulmonary stenosis.
Assessment 2 Short Essay Question -01 Discuss Mr. Ronald bates systemic assessment and priorities of management Mr. Ronald bates presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath (Respiratory rate- 24 breaths/min) and general discomfort (pain score- 4/10) and it was started in the morning and worsens when doing activities. The above presenting complaints lead to a possible cardiac event, so that this presentation would be triaged as category 2. Therefore, medical officer would be notified regrading patient presentation and put Mr. bates to semi fowler’s position in the Emergency bed if this position is comfortable for him. Further primary systemic assessment of the patient starts with an order with an assessment of
The third thing i learned was the progression of shock. When checking for shock, shock itself can not be seen, but the signs and symptoms can be. Such as, blood loss, which is called compensated shock. Decompesated shock, is the last step, and that is when the blood pressure drops and after that, there 's not much you can do. Because after that shock is terminal which means there is no saving someone 's life.
When in a state of shock, it can be hard for one to get out of it and move on. The brain needs to cope and shock is that way. In both books there is a figure who brings the one most affected back to Earth and helps them to snap out of it. Tom sees Wilson in this shocked state and “walked quickly over to Wilson and, standing in front of him, seized him firmly by the upper arms. ‘You’ve got to pull yourself together,’ he said with soothing gruffness” (Fitzgerald 140).
Both Stoker and Machen write about shock being a cause of death. In Stoker, no one actually dies of shock; however, there are several mentions of shock being the sole cause of death for people who are particularly weak or not able to handle sudden fright. To start, when Mina discusses Lucy’s deteriorating state in a letter to Jonathan, she states: “her doctor told her that within a few months, at most, she must die, for her heart is weakening. At any time, even now, a sudden shock would be almost sure to kill her”(Stoker 114). This one of many instances to which shock is referred to as the straw that could break the camel's back, so to speak.
Blood Shock In the United States alone, more than one million people present with symptoms of hemorrhagic shock each year. Hemorrhagic shock, more commonly referred to as hypovolemic shock due to the common occurrence of hypovolemia occurring due to hemorrhage is a very serious medical condition (Hypovolemic Shock). It is one of the most clinically common forms of shock and has been studied more frequently in the lab and in a clinical setting (Carnizaro & Shires 1963). This type of shock occurs when cardiac output is too low due to loss of blood due to traumatic injury to the skin such as an open wound or internal bleeding.
The narrowing of these arteries can lead to weakening of the left ventricle due to the increased workload; eventually the left ventricle cannot effectively pump, resulting in blood backing up into the lungs. The fluid is then forced into the blood, through the capillaries and into the alveoli; this is known as congestive heart failure (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Another cause of cardiogenic pulmonary edema is cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy also causes a weakening in the ventricles. Unlike coronary artery disease which is a result of the narrowing of the arteries, cardiomyopathy is caused by damage to the cardiac muscle (Mayo Clinic, 2014).
Bernardo Creamer Mr. Holland Intro. to Psychology September 27 2015 Shock Therapy and LSD for Kids There have been dark periods for all of us. Psychology especially, has suffered a great deal of very dark, cruel periods. Either due to ignorance, common belief or many other vacuous reasons, psychology has been the root of an extremely high number of unethical, morally corrupt investigations and experiments.
ANSWER – Physical Response – This reaction is automatic, meaning that our body will automatically respond to a trauma using bodily functions such as an increased heart rate, trembling, palpitations and sweating. For Jillian, the break in was so traumatic that her body is reacting without her ability to control the reaction. B Brenda hired a private investigator to follow her husband Brent for fear that he was cheating on her. Her fears were accurate and she served him with divorce papers last week. Since Brent was unaware that Brenda knew about his affair, and that the affair, in his eyes, was purely physical
In other words, the increase in stroke volume occurs as a result of improved ventricular force of contraction. Heterometric and homeometric control governs myocardial force of contraction. While homeometric control is independent of the myocardial fibres length at the end of diastole, heterometric control depends on this length of myocardial fibres at the diastole end and is mainly influenced by the venous return (Agarwal et al. CC06). The respiratory pump, as well as venoconstriction skeletal muscle pump, influences the rise in venous return during physical activity.
Description There are three stages of shock: Stage I (also called compensated, or nonprogressive), Stage II (also called decompensated or progressive), and Stage III (also called irreversible). In Stage I of shock, when low blood flow (perfusion) is first detected, a number of systems are activated in order to maintain/restore perfusion. The result is that the heart beats faster, the blood vessels throughout the body become slightly smaller in diameter, and the kidney works