Then, antibiotics, surgery, anti-inflammatory agents, or obstetric procedures may regulate hemostasis, mainly in chronic DIC. However, in acute phase of DIC, two categories of treatment are available as follows: treatments that slow the coagulation process and therapies that substitute the coagulation factors and the missing platelets. Heparin also can be used to stop the uncontrolled stimulation of the coagulation cascade due to the antithrombotic properties. Careful monitoring of heparin is required because the heparin can worsen the bleeding. Red blood cell administration, thawed frozen plasma, and platelets transfusion may be use based on the patient
When a patient comes with a chief complaint of “sore throat”, as a provider in order to come to a final diagnosis, it is crucial to ask questions about their current signs and symptoms. Taking a thorough history includes asking questions such as onset, duration, and severity of sore throat; associated symptoms; precipitating factors; alleviating factors; treatment done so far; and also any past history of illness. A detailed physical examination is necessary to visualize the structures of the throat. Examination of the throat may reveal generalized erythema of the pharynx or tonsils, enlargement of the tonsils and/or presence of exudate with some cervical lymphadenopathy (Goolsby & Grubbs, 2015). Following are three differential diagnoses for a patient who comes in with complains of sore throat 1.
A fistula is an opening on the large intestine and another surface that stick together and form a tunnel. If they are healed while connected, it can cause the spread of bacteria from the large intestine and cause inflammation and infection. The last, but yet of many more complications is dysuria or painful urination. Diverticulitis can cause a part of the bowels that are inflamed to have contact with the bladder causing the pain and having to urinate more often. It can also cause air to be present in urine which is the result of a fistula.
Treatment must begin in a timely manner. The specifics of treatment depend on the etiology of the edema. Surgery may be needed if the edema is caused by tumors, abscesses and/or hydrocephalus. Causes such as diabetic ketoacidosis, stroke and malignant hypertension may require aggressive medical management. Sometimes medication may be used in treatment of interstitial cerebral edema in order to reduce cerebrospinal fluid production in chronically increased intracranial pressure.
In UC, the colonic mucosa will undergo recurrent inflammation (Meier & Sturm, 2011). Inflammation occurs in the distal to proximal colon segments (Meier & Sturm, 2011). The clinical feature of UC is the presence of bloody diarrhea (Danese & Fiocchi, 2011). Mucous may or may not be present in the diarrhea (Danese & Fiocchi, 2011). Patients with UC usually present with an urgency to evacuate the bowels, bleeding from the rectum, diarrhea, and abdominal pain (Ford, Moayyedi, & Hanauer, 2013).
Diagnosis: Diagnosis of acute Charcot joint or neuropathy is quite difficult, clinical suspicion is highly important. Infection is the primary differential diagnosis, most prominently either cellulitis or osteomyelitis. Imaging and examination are used to find out if there is infection; if not, then the diagnosis would most likely be Charcot joint. Clinical image such as a warm, edematous, erythematous joint with intact pulses in the absence of infection is Charcot foot until proven otherwise. If edema and erythema disappear with 5-10 minutes of leg rising in the supine patient, it is suggestive of Neuropathy.
Abstract Rhabdomyosarcomas are malignant skeletal muscle tumors. They account for about 50% of soft tissue sarcomas in children. The usual sites include head and neck(35%),extremities, trunk,retroperitoneum. Lesser common sites include the genitourinary. The cervix is one of the least common sites in genitourinary tract.We report a case of Cervical Rhabdomyosarcoma who was misdiagnosed as Vaginal RMS and was started on chemotherapy.
It can also stem from allergic rhinitis. A patient with rhinosinusitis will present with complaints of fever, malaise, HA, sinus pressure, sore throat, purulent nasal discharge, cough, ear pain, and teeth discomfort when grinding them together. Diagnosis is based on patient’s report of symptoms and physical exam findings. This patient has malaise, fever, HA, sinus pressure, sore throat, cough, and tenderness noted when grinding teeth together. Bacterial rhinosinusitis is the final diagnosis for this patient.
These are, Thrombosis, Intimal hyperplasia and graft infection. Thrombosis consists of coagulation of the blood in the artery. Intimal hyperplasia is when the tunica intima of a blood vessel is thickened. Lastly is the case of graft infection, which involves patient-related, surgery related and postoperative risk factors, and can happen by direct contamination during operative procedure, in most cases from the patient’s skin or adjacent bowel. (Hydrogel and Lycra Graft) There are several ways in which Synthetic Grafts can be improved.
Bernard-Soulier syndrome is an inherited platelet disorder caused by a defect in a gene responsible for a receptor that aids platelets in adhering to the lining of injured blood vessels. This disorder is characterized by thrombocytopenia and large nonfunctional platelets (Pham,2007). Patients often present initially with bleeding symptoms such as purpua, epistaxis, ecchymosis, bleeding of the gums, and menorrhagia (Lanza,2006). Diagnosis is further confirmed by platelet aggregation studies and flow cytometry. Treatment is mainly supportive, such as, the use of DDAVP to shorten bleeding times, with more serious hemorrhages being treated with platelet transfusions.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a form of muscular dystrophy that only affects boys. Cardiomyopathy is present in around twenty-five percent of patients at age 6, and increasing as age goes up to fifty-nine percent at age 10. At eighteen years of age over ninety percent of patients have Cardiomyopathy. There is no known cure available at this time; but there are treatments that include steroid administration, and assisted ventilation. The absent dystrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to a frame shift in the gene.
Specific Characteristics : Crohn’s most commonly affects the end of the small bowel and the beginning of the colon, but it may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. Crohn’s disease can also affect the entire thickness of the bowel wall. The inflammation of the intestine can skip,leaving normal areas in the bowel between patches of diseased intestine. Causes: The cause of Crohn 's disease is unknown. However, it is likely due to an abnormal response of the immune system.