Biopolymers are polymers that biodegrade the action of microorganisms, heat and moisture. It can be made using waste starch from a crop that has been grown for food use. The advantages of biopolymers are it can reduce the dependence of fossil fuels and it’ s easy biodegradable. (Cech,2001) Cellulose is a complex of carbohydrate and consisting of 3,000 or more unit of glucose. It is an outstanding commodity due to its abundance and distinctive structural properties (Eckardt,2003).
The fungi kingdom consists of mold , mildew and mushrooms. The fungi kingdom is often confused with the plant kingdom. Since the characteristics are very similar. For example, both species use chloroplast to gain energy. Also fungi have similar characteristics to animals.
Plants and animals that have been genetically modified can become more resistant to the unexpected problems of disease. The beneficiaries have also been the agrochemical industry (pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and nematicides), large petrochemical companies (BASF, Dow Chemical, and ExxonMobil), manufacturers of agricultural machinery, dam builders, and large landowners. As stated by PG Economics, “The insect resistant (IR) technology used in cotton and corn has consistently delivered yield gains from reduced pest damage.” Pest control is very important to GMO farming and benefits the value of the crops. For others, the idea of GMO farming is a bad one because it leads to reduced genetic diversity, increased vulnerability to pests, soil erosion, water shortages, reduced soil fertility, micronutrient deficiencies, soil contamination, reduced availability of nutritious food crops for the local population, the displacement of vast numbers of small farmers from their land, rural impoverishment, and increased tensions and conflicts. Also, many of the farmers that use GMO for agricultural production do not follow all of the standards.
breve, Bi. longum are probiotic strains, which could be used for the fortification of fermented fruit and vegetable products (Table 6). Shelf-life of probiotic strains in fermented fruits and vegetables could be improved by encapsulation technology. However, further studies are needed to show the efficacy and the long-term safety of these applications used in probiotic formulations (Prakash et al.
This paper has shown how genetic modification of food crops can be helpful in the alleviation of poverty. Like any other factor, genetic modification of food has its pros and cons. It also has risks associated with it. These risks include antibiotic resistance and creating allergies to consumers. However, it also has benefits.
Candida - which is your bad yeast then baker yeast and lastly brewers and nutritional .Is a single cell microorganism , member of kingdom of fungi. they are commonly found on plants leaves, flower, and fruits as well as soil. also some animals and skin of human.i will mostly discuss the brewers and nutritional yeast because they are the good of yeast. yeast can also reproduce sexually. yeast produce active cell division fast growing plants for ex roots.
• How is this chemical used? - In personal care and pharmaceutical products, parabens are the main preservatives used. Parabens in creams and makeup, stop the growth of fungus, bacteria and other microbes, especially in the dark, moist, and warm environment of a washroom. • What are its benefits? -Although there are risks of this chemical, paraben also have benefits.
Catalase is used in the papermaking industry: The catalase is made up of Aspergillus niger, the catalase works by removing the excess hydrogen peroxide after the bleaching process. It works by breaking down hydrogen peroxide and producing water and oxygen. The use of catalase shortens the process time, saves energy and reduces pollution. Used as an alternative method due to that fact that it produces cleaner products. Catalase can also be used in the paper making industry to soften wood pieces.
Conidia and spores are normally dispersed by water splash although some are dispersed by air currents. b) Species generally possess excellent saprophytic capabilities, and can survive for long periods as chlamydospores in host tissues, and as non-pathogenic parasites on alternative hosts. c) Fusarium can be introduced into nurseries in a number of ways but most commonly with infected seed, corms or bulbs, cuttings and transplants. Seed coats can be contaminated with spores, or pieces of infected plant tissue, or there may be internal seed infection. Infected cuttings can be taken from apparently healthy plants.
Phosphorus metabolism : The endomycorrhizal symbiosis is beneficial for both fungi and plant. Fungi provide phosphorus to the plant while plant as a result give carbon to the fungi. But the phosphorus metabolism is the most important part of this association. Phosphorus is first absorbed by fungi from the soil and is stored in its cytoplasm while later fungi transport it to its vacuoles. Then these vacuolar components containing phosphoros are transported from outer mycelium of fungi to the plant.