For example, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie who receives Commonwealth Prize for Literature for her first novel Purple Hibiscus also receives Orange Prize for her same novel and for her Half of a Yellow Sun. She follows tradition like Chinua Achebe, also targets issues of social and political issues directly or indirectly of the status of Nigeria. However, her Half of a Yellow sun speaks the most direct attack of Nigeria and Biafra war. Her Purple Hibiscus shows the impact of colonization of Nigeria. It visualizes the facts of ethnic tensions and political imbalance and the fear of racial injustice and cultural identity and power supremacy among the people as well as rulers.
Hannah Lee Mrs White AP Literature 27 October 2014 The Death of Okonkwo and Igbo Culture The classic novel Things Fall Apart, written by a Nigerian author Chinua Achebe, has accounts of the Igbo people’s ways of living until the arrival of the Europeans who bring social and cultural change to Africa. In response to the stark negative portrayal of Africa by the biased European colonialists, the author attempts to reveal both problems and beauty in the African ethics; in order to provide a sharp criticism of imperialism, Achebe portrays the main character Okonkwo’s resistance in conforming to the new culture brought by the colonialists. In the novel, Okonkwo exhibits a solid personality that influences his response to numerous conflicts that he has to overcome, events that lead up to his suicide. Okonkwo’s responses reflect his character of little understanding and patience; however, some critics believe that the death shows the positive ideals and enriches the Igbo culture and society. Ultimately, in Things Fall Apart, Okonkwo’s death that is influenced by character and signifies the value of the complex Igbo culture and tradition.
The advantages brought by the colonial era to the African continent abound. According to the author, one of the most important benefit of the colonialism is formal education, modern way of curing diseases and environmental sanitation. It was however argued that the purpose of colonialism was not meant for the benefit of the African people. In case of disarticulating affairs related to government and political structure the author has indicated that––the boundaries of the countries themselves were mostly totally artificial, they had been created at the European politicians with little or no regard for African’ multitude of pre-colonial nation-state and small-scale village communities. Since, the African Nationalist said that independence given to African is false because true freedom comes with economic independence and the author calls this kind of practice as Neo-colonialism.
In the case of the books “I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings” by Maya Angelou and “Things Fall Apart” by Chinua Achebe, it is obvious that, apart from entertainment, there is at least one more purpose of writing. Both Achebe 's and Angelou 's work, have in common the fact, that they have been written in order to relate information to the readers. “Things Fall Apart” serves the purpose of writing an alternative history and making the Igbo culture known, while “I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings” serves the purpose of raising awareness and educating its readers about the racial segregation in the United States, during the great depression, as well as providing them with the reason as to why Maya decided to become a writer. Angelou, however writes her story, not only for the sake of her readers, but also for herself, because it is a way of self-healing and relief. Things Fall Apart is a short novel about Okonkwo, an established member of Umuofia, which is an Igbo village in what now is south-eastern Nigeria.
Many stereotypes of African culture have emerged due to western literature and media and first hand accounts of explorers. Things Fall Apart offers a view into the truth and reality of African cultures, which are often misconceptualized by these stereotypes. Acebe shows how African society functions well without assistance from foreign travelers. In Things Fall Apart, Achebe counters the imperialist stereotypes of Africa by keeping certain words in the Igbo language, as opposed to translating them into English, to fight back against the spreading western culture and to embrace their own way of life. He also counters the imperialist stereotypes of Africa by using Igbo proverbs to show how their culture values many of the same things that western
Abstract: Chinua Achebe, the recipient of Man Booker International Prize,2007, has one interest which is to be responsible to the fate or destiny of his people and society. Achebe as an African writer, his writing especially novels portray the various colors and texture of the post-colonial African reality. Observations such as socio-psychological impacts influence the author and so the literature. Hence, the post-colonial literature is described in The Empire Writes Back, as "what each of these literatures has in common beyond their special and distinctive regional characteristics is that they emerged in their present form out of the experience of colonization and asserted themselves by foregrounding the tension with the imperial power and by emphasizing their difference from the assumptions of the imperial center. It is this which makes them distinctively post-colonial".
If Things Fall Apart had been written is a different time, how and why might it differ? Chinua Achebe, the author of the post-colonial novel Things Fall Apart, founded a Nigerian literary movement which wrote about the traditional oral culture of its indigenous peoples in the 1950’s. Achebe sought to convey understanding of this culture in response to novels, such as Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad, which portray native Africans as primitive, socially backward and language-less. In his novel, Achebe shatters the stereotypical European litera-ture in which Africans are described as primitive and mindless savages. "The writer cannot be excused from the task of re-education and regeneration that must be done.
From the understanding of the empowerment theory, one can see its positive relevance to South Africa’s decolonization and Africanization process. This can be so in that, a critical analysis on pre 1994 South Africa shows that the Republic was under white colonial rule of the National Party which sort to increase patterns of colonial discrimination of the Black South Africans through the devolution of political structures and the promotion of a putative independence in the African reserves Laura (2012). Race also played a pivotal role during this colonial period. The White rule was characterized by installation of oppression, denial of opportunities and poverty on the black majority based on belief in biological racial difference and hierarchy. This exemplifies the notion of oppression, discrimination and powerlessness suffered by the marginalized individuals and groups in some societies as argued by the empowerment theory.
Critic Nahem Yousaf highlights the importance of these depictions: as it is "Around the tragic stories of Okonkwo and Ezeulu, Achebe sets about textualising Igbo cultural identity". Further he adds: "Achebe seeks to produce the effect of a pre-colonial reality as an Igbo-centric response to a Eurocentrically constructed imperial 'reality ' ". The gender roles of men and women, as well as societies ' conceptions of the associated concepts are the frequent themes in Achebe 's writing. A prevalent theme in Achebe 's novels is the intersection of African tradition (particularly Igbo varieties) and modernity, especially as embodied by European colonialism. His Awards and Honures: St. Louis Literary Award
It is appropriate to analyse “This Earth of Mankind” by Pramoedya Ananta Toer because it represents the struggle of a Native Indonesian against colonialism. The writer uses postcolonial analysis by Edward W. Said and Homi Bhabha theory. Edward (1978) stated that in the post-colonialist theory, there is racial understones which is an inferior view to orientals. In the literary works, texts were in the perspectives of the colonized (oppressed). This Earth of Mankind novel is narrated from the perspectives of the colonized (oppressed) side, in which in this novel is narrated by Pramoedya Ananta Toer 's, a native Indonesian young