Due to the decrease in diameter from the tank draining apparatus to the connecting tubing, a portion of the potential energy is converted into friction loss. Therefore, Torricelli's law is invalid and a friction factor is needed. The derived cylindrical model: 〖dh/dt〗_cylinder=-√(2gh_1-2gh_f ) is synonymous with Torricelli's law except for the addition of friction and the removal of the areas. The derived conical model: 〖dh/dt〗_cone=-(A_2 √(2gh_1-2gh_f ))/12[A+πh(0.124h+0.159)] is also similar to Torricelli's law except it is more complex due to the changing radius as a function of the changing height. As the tubing diameters increased, the time to drain the tank decreased.
The reactions are exothermic, so large amount of heat energies are generated. Then cold charge materials like DRI or scrap is added to the furnace to utilize this enormous heat energy and thus to avoid overheating of the bath. After completion of the decarburization process, the top lance is moved away and the electrodes are brought into operating positions. In the arcing phase, the remaining solid charge material like scrap or DRI is fed into the bath to achieve the tapping weight. The temperature of the bath is adjusted and the heat is tapped into
Some of these include: pouring temperature, metal composition, viscosity, heat transfer, and heat of fusion. In this lab aluminum was used as the casting metal, which has a melting point of approximately 660 degrees Celsius. To increase fluidity when pouring molten aluminum, it is important to heat the aluminum just past its melting point to decrease the chances that the metal will solidify before entering the cavity of the mold. The temperature must, however, be closely monitored, “as viscosity and its sensitivity to temperature (viscosity index) increase, fluidity decreases,” (me311_casting1). Fluidity and freezing temperature, or solidification temperature, is inversely proportional to fluidity.
Therefore, parameters important in determining microstructures in casting, such as growth rate (R), temperature gradient (G), undercooling (δT), and alloy composition determine the development of microstructures in welds as well. However, microstructure development in the weld zone is more complicated because of physical processes that occur due to the interaction of the heat source with the metal during welding, including re-melting, heat and fluid flow, vaporization, dissolution of gasses, solidification, subsequent solid-state transformation, stresses, and distortion. These processes and their interactions profoundly affect weld pool solidification and microstructure. During welding, where the molten pool is moved through the material, the growth rate and temperature gradient vary considerably across the weld pool. Along the fusion line the growth rate is low while the temperature gradient is steepest.
With increasing Rhodium molar percentage, the amorphous phase increases in the oxide coating, so it is expected that the capacitance of the three-component coatings is much higher than that of the coatings without Rhodium. At 1.51 V, the two-component coating exhibits a higher capacitance than the triple coatings. This is due to the fact that, in higher over voltages, the released gases will fill the coating’s groove regions and reduce the active surface area of the coating. Therefore, the ability to perform electrochemical reactions will be greatly reduced in high over voltages by increasing the rhodium content. This leads to creation of more cracks in triple coatings and filling of these cracks by released gases which reduces the ability of coatings to perform electrochemical reactions.
When the bonding pressure is applied the contact point between the surfaces will expand instantaneously. At low bonding pressure the contact rate within the mating surfaces was low and hence the shear strength of the joint was less. High shear strength is obtained at a pressure of 5Mpa as shown in the Fig 3. At higher pressure, the rate of plastic deformation is higher at the contact surfaces and hence diffusion rate increases. This makes the atom to pass through the interface rapidly resulting in higher strength.
The various reviews on need of damping are discuses. Damping is an energy absorbing mechanism and a reduction in the amplitude an oscillations or vibration as a result of Energy being dissipated as heat. The polymer layers are able to restrain bending vibrations . For polymers of the highest damping, the full width at half maximum of the damping peak at constant frequency may be only about 180 C. Passive damping properties of composite materials are important because the damping properties affect their sound transmission loss, especially in the critical frequency range, and also their vibration response to excitation . To reduce response of vibrations a Tuned mass damper (TMD) is required which is a passive
The bigger number of diffraction lines intensities decreases during the transition phase. Bonding distances and angles changes drastically at the transition of β phase. A larger bond distance gives β phase a higher degree of dynamic disorder. No thermal expansion was seen in the β phase as well. This resulted the tilt angle to reduce as the temperature rises.
This turbulence can be increased at the end of the compression by suitable design of combustion chamber, which involves the geometry of cylinder head and piston crown. The degree of turbulence increases directly with the piston speed. However, excessive turbulence is also undesirable. The effects of turbulence can be summarized as, turbulence accelerates chemical action so that the combustion time is reduced and hence minimizes the tendency to detonate. Turbulence increases the heat flow to the cylinder wall and in the limit excessive turbulence may extinguish the