It has become an industry objective to reduce this distortion caused by heat treatments. Ideally, controlling the quenching process by changing the heat boundaries to minimize the distortion with the additional aim of satisfying residual stress and surface hardness distribution. (Heat treating) This experiment will be conducted on quenched, zinc coated steels. Knowledge of the phases of the carbon steels and knowing the properties of the different steels can be very beneficial in manipulating the heat treatment process to best suit what is desired. There are several impacts that should be noted about quenching a material.
As such, in the low temperature of α phase, the structural properties will incline towards the values observed for high temperature in β phase of FePO4. As the temperature increases, the tetrahedral form is being distorted by vibrations where the cell parameters and volume of α phase increases in a non-linear manner, it causes the change in angle and length of bond of the FePO4 structure. As the α-β phase transition reaches the temperature of 980K, the tetrahedral angle decreases and the FE-O-P bridging angles increases. The main influence to the thermal expansion of FePO4 is known as angular variation where there is change between the two symmetrically-independent intertetrahedral bridging angles and its tilt angles. Thus, in relevance to temperature dependence on thermal expansion, the temperature is indirectly dependent on the angular variations of its bridging angles and tilt angles.
For controlling the heating temperature of the catalyst presence in a reactor is done by a micro-processor based temperature controller. The gaseous products are produced after the oxidation reaction in a reactor is analysis by an online gas chromatogram (Nucon series 5765) equipped with a porapack q-column, FID detector and a methaniser for measuring of the concentration of CO and CO2. The oxidation of CO at any instant was calculated on the basis of concentration CO in the feed and product stream by the following equations: (XCO) = [(CCO)in - (CCO)out ] / [CCO]in = [(ACO)in - (ACO)out ] / [ACO]in --------------- (2) Where, the concentration of CO is proportional to the area of chromatogram ACO. The overall concentration of CO in the inlet stream is proportional to the area of CO2 chromatogram. 3.
The exploration was meant to also analyze the effect that temperature has on the rate of a chemical reaction. From the raw data obtained, it is clear that the time taken to complete the reaction decreases with increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the rate of reaction is however dependent on the activation energy. When the activation energy is positive, as the temperature will increase , the rate of reaction will also increasing meaning that they are directly proportional .However, if the activation energy is negative, the rate of the chemical reaction will decrease as the temperature is increased. To carefully describe the relationship between the rate of reaction and the temperature, a graph of these two variables is plotted.
As shown in Fig. 4, the system COP increased first and then decreased with the generating temperature increasing and there existed a maximum value of 0.277 at Tg = 63 °C. The variation tendency of the cooling capacity was similar to that of the system COP, but the maximum value of 734.4 W at Tg = 67 °C. The total pressure of the primary flow in the nozzle was relatively low with the generating temperature set under these conditions. The reason for the
With an increasing temperature, there would be an increase in volume and the tilt angle would decrease. By looking at the space group of alpha phase of FePO4 which is P3121, it shows that for low temperature form, there will be 3 one screw axis and for the space group of beta phase of FePO4 which is P6422, it shows that for high temperature form, there will be 6 four screw axis. This also explains the unit cell structure of alpha phase of FePO4 being trigonal and changing to hexagonal in the beta phase of
Then using the radiation sensor to measure the thermal radiation (4 surfaces). Also take notes of the voltage across the cube (voltmeter). Then using the target thermistor resistance at temp of 125 ͦC, 120 ͦC, 115 ͦC etc. (use a fan to cool the leslies cube) Theory: Stefan-Boltzmann law is defined as J=ɛσT4 Where T= radiates energy with radiant heat flux σ= 5.67x10-8 Wm-2 K-4 ɛ= (0,1) the ɛ is equal to when 1 when the object is a black body. In this experiment we are using a sensor that is emitting radiation and we must take into account the corresponding
Figure 55 demonstrates the variation of the in-cylinder peak pressure with load for six different types of fuel. As it can be observed, the peak pressure increases with increasing the engine load. The reason behind that is that the mass flow rate of air is kept constant when the engine speed is steady ( =1700 rpm in this case) ,however the amount of fuel injected is increasing , thus the rate of mixing between air and fuel is lower which delays the ignition period
A Study of Lethal Effects of High Power Laser over Various Materials by Transient Thermal Analysis using Finite Element Method Abstract: This paper describes the lethal effects of Laser during its interaction with metals. In this paper we discuss the thermal analysis for studying the changes in physical properties of different metals and alloys name copper (Cu), Aluminum (Al) and Stainless Steel (SS) using finite element analysis (FEA) technique. The ANSYS WORKBENCH 14 software was used along with 3D CAD (Computer-Aided Design) solid geometry to simulate the behavior of temperature distribution under thermal loading conditions. A comparative study is also done to simulate the effect of beam- combining. Introduction: A high power fiber laser
When the volume of the container enclosing the gas is reduced, there are more gas particles per unit volume. The gas particles collide with each other and the wall of container with higher frequency and this will exert a higher pressure. The kinetic energy remains the same and temperature remains constant. Charles’ Law ( Law of Volume ) reveals that when pressure is kept constant, the volume of gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas in kelvin. Relating this back to molar volume, the higher the temperature, the higher the volume the gas occupies.