Going back to consider the political theory, authority, and liberty in history, we can take a look at Machiavelli and Hobbes’ perspectives and different features of documents as primary sources, so that we can comprehend how these two great philosophers viewed the themes differently. My first theme that I would extend on Machiavelli and Hobbes’ notions would be on political theory.
For examples; Love is for good, hatred for evil; desire is for good, aversion for evil; joy is for good, sorrow for evil while the irascible passions are related to good and evil under the aspect of difficulty. For examples; Hope is for a good in some degree difficult to achieve; despair is for an evil too difficult to avoid; fear is for an evil hard to escape; courage is for a good difficult to attain; anger is resentment of an evil difficult to throw off. As what I have read, as these two passions work together, all irascible passions turn into concupiscible passions: hope and courage, once successful, are turned into love and joy; anger, fear, and despair, when their force is spent, end in sorrow, and sometimes, when they
Eighteenth century Augustan literature is marked by the wit and intellectual conceit shape tone. Even though satire was already a feature of the Restoration literature, it was during the eighteenth century satire and parodies were more widely used across the spectrum of prose, poetry and dramatic works. Poets were arguing what topics are suitable to be exposed as a work of art and what are the proper modes in which a writer can express their ideas. Several authors of this era, such as Jonathan Swift, Alexander Pope, Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson and Henry Feilding create an immense impact on literature. It is through the writings of these authors that this era paved way to the development of the novel.
Self-reliance is its aversion. It loves not realities and creators, but names and customs." He considered that society is against people and that self-reliance means respect for God which can be found in every man. It is very important to liberate the self from the society. One should consider to be the Universe, a part of the whole.
His thesis is that for a man to be consider a man he must submit to a male mystique that diminishes his ability to live a fulfilling life. In turn, “being a man” brings nothing but negative things for men. There has been a negative connotation placed on the ability to identify as masculine. One can see his thesis when he writes, “it is a hideous and crippling lie; it not only insists in difference and connives at superiority, it is also by its very nature destructive-emotionally damaging and socially harmful.” Considering his argument pertains to a certain time period, it is convincing because of the details and examples he provides. In the first paragraph he brings up the issue with an example.
1. The Suffering and the Mystery of Evil “Man suffers whenever he experiences any kind of evil.” The concept of suffering and evil are closely connected. Pope John Paul II addresses this relationship between suffering and evil in his apostolic letter as follows: Man suffers on account of evil, which is certain lack, limitation or distortion of good. We could say that man suffers because of a good in which he does not share, from which in a certain sense he is cut off, or of which he has deprived himself. He particularly suffers when he an ought-in the normal order of things-to have share in this good and does not have it.
Every human being has his own dignity and a free will to do whatever a human being wants. Considering that Kant says “Every man has a rightful claim to respect from his fellow men, and he is also bound to show respect to every other man in return.” (J. W. Ellington, 1983, p.462). In other words, this quote leads us to the golden rule of ethics which is “treat others as you want treat yourself”. Thereby, the free will of one man should not touch the dignity of another man. Thus, Kant considers free will as the main source of morality.
The juxtaposition of visual and aural imagery shows Dorian’s internal battle, but the fact that Dorian cannot see them, only hear their voices displays the blind faith that Dorian has in two men who have completely contrasting moral ideals, displaying Dorian’s mercurial and conflicting morals. The lexical choice of “follow” expresses the way in which Dorian is still very young and easily influenced. This quote also shows the deteriorating mind set of Dorian and the ongoing internal battle he faces between good and evil. Furthermore, while Dorian does have conflicting morals, it is clear that the influence of Lord Henry is far superior to that of Basil, this is illustrated in Dorian’s outburst, “’Each of us has heaven and hell in him, Basil,’ cried Dorian with a wild gesture of despair.” The antithesis of heaven and hell is a clear manifestation of Dorian’s dual nature, Wilde’s clever use of religious imagery here dissects the parallels that exist between the dual nature of man and the duality that lives within the Victorian
Wilde’s ‘The Picture of Dorian Grey’ is a story immensely useful in painting a moral lesson. It is a representation of the potential consequences of having an unbalanced personality, which can be best read through the principles of the psychologist Sigmund Freud and his theories on the id, ego and superego. The id, which is the primitive part of our personality, operates on the pleasure principle and is entirely selfish –demanding instant gratification of its needs. It is manifested in ‘The Picture of Dorian Grey’ through Lord Henry, who ‘represent[s] to [Dorian] all the sins [he has] never had the courage to commit.’ The Superego, by complete contrast, represents the personalities internalised sense of right and wrong and is based on the morality principle. It is embodied in the character of Basil Hallward, who symbolises the novels only moral figure who is destroyed at the end of the story for presenting a threat to the pleasure principle of the id.
They are simply flat with redundant phrases. Here Milton is morally exalted. It is due to the fact that Arnold is more concerned with his duty to the society- how to live – rather than with his duty to literature – how to appreciate. R. A. Scott James remarks, “Arnold’s powers of appreciation might be twisted by his preconceived schemes of moral excellence.” This line in Arnold’s artistic make-up from time to time conflicts with a purely disinterested judgments. We see the same bias in his dislike of “Scotch drink, scotch religion and Scotch manners” and in his harsh treatment of Keats in regard to Fanny Browne.