Social-Cultural Anthropology: Theories Of Kinship

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Paper 2 Social-Cultural Anthropology
(Module 12)
Kinship

Objective of the study:
 To know meaning of the kinship
 To know the different kinship systems
 To know the theory of kinship.

Content:
1.Introduction:
2. Theories of kinship:
3.Definitions:
4.Descent:
5.Characteristics of the Clan:
6.TERMS OF ADDRESS AND TERMS OF REFERANCE:
7. Kinship Systems:
8. Conclusion.

1.Introduction:
Concept of Kinship
Anthropological studies have directed a great deal of attention to the structure and meaning attached to kinship for several reasons.
1. Its fundamental aspects of human life.
2. Its provide basic structure to the individual one.
3. Its connect individual within a single generation and link up individual within single generation.
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Theories of kinship: Kinship consists two main theories i.e.
A) Descent Theory. Basically consists two main thinkers Radcliff Brown and Mayer Fortes. It suggests kinship systems function is sure intergenerational continutity by the lineage groups by maintenance of descent link through either or both parents.

B) Alliance Theory. Major Contributed by the Levisstrauss. According to him kinship in this unit is an individual’s relationship to his mother’s brother because it is mothers brothers who release his sister for formation of an alliance , through ,marriage exchange man from another group. This theory study includes marriage and incest rules, prohibiton, forbidden, rights allocate to the duties for marriage.Alliance are refer by the systems where as descent group are linked by the rules so remain in affinal relationship by one generation to another generation.

According to Levis Strauss human and animals are different in natural and behavior. So animals are considered to be incest. They acquired culture according and created incest taboos. So incest is natural and incest taboo is cultural. Men are forbidden to marry in one’s own group so they exchange the women’s to another group. Thus they entered into marriage
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These group are of either the patrilineal or matrilineal variety. The term groupsFa with FaBr, and fact that FabrChi are classified with siblings may indicate that the members of each class of relatives have something in common. In patrilineal society they are all members of ego’s patrilineal descent group. Mother and her sister (with whom she is grouped terminologically) are members of another descent group.
7.7.Crow and Omaha Systems: In Omaha terminology presence of strongly patrilineal descent groups. While in Crow presence of strong matrilineal descents group. In both Omaha and crow societies ego is especially concerned about the members of his own descent group people with whom he shares the certain obligation, rights and privilege and with whom his interaction are especially important frequent.

7.8.Sudanese Systems: In a bifurcate-collateral (Sudanese) kinship systems all uncles, aunts and cousins are referred to the different terms different kinship statues are not terminologically classed together. In other words collateral relatives are distinguished (bifurcated) from

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