Audience labour Introduction The Canadian scholar Dallas.W. Smythe presented the audience commodity theory in his book Communications: Blindspot of Western Marxism (1977). The demand of advertised goods is created by audience labour, and this is the purposes of monopoly capitalism advertisers. Time away from work, but not asleep is sold as a commodity to advertisers. This is the audience commodity, which perform marketing functions and work at the production and reproduction of labour power.
In “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception, ” authors Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno argue that the definition of mass culture as something that is determined by the majority of a population is false. They believe that the characteristics that define the mass culture of society is, in reality, determined by those who work in the mass production of media. In their essay, the authors express that culture has turned in to an industry, in which the motivation to circulate media among the population is to make money. Mass culture is the concept of a population giving rise to a uniform set of intellectual and artistic values and practices, used by capitalist societies because this it allows for media producers to manufacture media that conforms to mass culture and to create different levels of culture within the masses of society, all to increase sales and profits for the culture industry. In the concept of mass culture, the “masses” who form the majority of a population also are the consumers who spend money for circulated art and media, and help
Abstract In the contemporary capitalist society, the marketing of higher education adopts a highly capitalist-focused rhetoric, with commercials promoting students’ choices in favour of specific educational establishments for financial and not intellectual reasons. Educational institutions use various methods and techniques of persuasion to frame the audience’s beliefs and values in favour of certain educational choices. In connection with pervasive presence of propaganda techniques in marketing, this paper presents a visual and rhetorical analysis of higher education print advertisements’ analysis. This analytical study is intended to show how marketers of higher education reinforce problematic representations that can be read as discriminatory
Marxism reframes economic relationships to be at the core of human history, focusing on the innate need for material items. Placing economic relationships at the core of human history, Marxism focuses on the innate need for material items while simultaneously emphasizing the relationship between industry and exchange to understand humanity. Marx recognized three epochs of history, including, tribal phase, feudal phase, and capitalist phase. Following these stages, Marx theory leads to a conscious revolution from the repressed class. Once the revolution has taken place, the final stage of human history leads to socialism.
Marxist theory also helps us further our understanding of the achievement gap. We will interpret the achievement gap through the concepts of ALIENATION, SPECIES-BEING, and CLASS CONFLICT. Although these concepts pertain to critiques on capitalism, they remain useful and revealing to the U.S. education system, as this system itself was heavily influenced by capitalism. For example, there are bells to conduct the school day, grades to track student performance, incentives to outperform your peers, and many other aspects influenced by capitalism. Marxist theory allows us to examine how the organization of the school system either promotes or hinders the achievement gap.
Political ideology is a belief or understanding that is applied in a policy of a country. With the creation of the ideology adopted by individual, these ideologies have the primary goal is to make followers of the ideology run on a culture of understanding. The purpose of a political ideology that is the basis for opposition to power and provide the ground of legitimacy to the government, then becomes a means of communication between leaders and subordinates, besides the aim to provide guidance in choosing policy. According to Robert Eccleshall, Ideology can help to understand the social world. Ideology also explains how to realize the reality of social and political ideas that are arranged to be able to form a social organization.
It is interesting to know why we believe in what we believe; there must be something which pulls us towards these certain beliefs. These can be obtained from our own personal life experiences, lessons which we acquire from those around us, and also through cultural materials which transmit information. Hence, this can be part of an ideology, but one cannot restrict its limits upon an individual. Furthermore, ideologies which can be associated with culture and archetypes, are something which keep on evolving with history and can be seen to respond to circumstances which are societal. Gramsci believes that all human beings are able to make sense of their lives and their experience through, what can be referred to, as the ‘common sense of popular culture’.
Productive forces and relations of production are the key concepts of his analysis. Those are relevant each other and related with other social relations. He sees entering into production relations is indispensable and independent of the will (Marx). Production relations specify general process of social, economic and political life. Marx’s ideas can be best explained by:
Structuralism is worried with the general structure of society and the way social establishments go about as a limitation or breaking point and control singular conduct. Structuralism offers a perspective of the individual being controlled by the society they live in; Marx and Durkheim are comparative in that they can both be depicted as structuralisms, and however their individual thoughts are to some degree distinctive. Functionalism, the structural agreement sociological theory is a key theory that was produced by Emile Durkheim, one of the establishing fathers of sociology. This theory considers society to be a user structure of between related social foundations, for example, schools and the lawful framework that is in consistent agreement. Functionalists trust
Once the researcher formulates a problem or question to investigate, then is bounded to formulate a design for investigating. Both perspectives share a foundation in philosophical materialism. Although the western Marxism has moved from this materialist focus outside, its consideration of economics remains a vibrant materialist perspective within the field of research. Causal connections, Both Marxist and Positivist perspectives focus on finding strong correlation between two or more social phenomena, and then they might suspect that one of the phenomena is causing the other to take place. For example Family violence Vs Alcohol abuse, Patriarchy and Cultural background.