In addition to the negative purpose of a retributive punishment system, the current prison conditions help explain why this model is severely damaging to convicts. The United States prison condition is plagued with brutal violence, increased rate of sexual abuse, mistreatment of convicts, and overcrowding of prisons at an alarming rate. This coincides with the retributive-model, considering this dogma fails to view these criminal offenders as socially ill individuals and leading to extensive imprisonment periods. In 2005, a research was conducted about the current prison condition in the U.S. Results showed that “the population of convicts has risen by nearly 4x in the last 20 years, accumulating close to 2 million convicts” (Jeffrey Smith,
Thus this essay will discuss race, poverty, crime, and punishment impact on citizens in the United States. The criminal sanctions and victimization employment in order to continue a social system has created massive disadvantages that perpetuates stratification and poverty. Punishment is widespread sentences families, peer groups, neighborhoods, and racial groups are impacted from punishment of individuals convicted of felonies. Statistics show a huge population differences. African Americans are incarcerated approximately seven times as often as whites.
An institutional racism still faced both past and present can be found in incarceration and racial profiling. Our prison populations have skyrocketed since the 80 's and there is a disproportionate amount of black and Latino individuals who are incarcerated. Between New York’s stop and frisk policies and the insurmountable amounts of unarmed black and Latino men who are shot by police the discrimination by the police and law enforcement is clearly evident. Although black and Latino drivers are less likely than white to be carrying drug and other contraband the majority of car pulled over are the cars of black and Latino divers. The racial profiling is just one reason for the disproportionate black and Latino prison population.
In 2012, almost seven thousand inmates were serving life sentences for crimes they committed as juveniles (603). Sentencing and correctional facilities were not insusceptible to the confusion of the times, but also faced additional inconvenience. Sentencing research uncovered major discretion and something unlike anything they have ever seen before, resulting in negative punishments for minorities. The conditions in prisons led to fights and the death/injury of inmates and staff. Crime rates rising, social disobedience, and drug use increasing has alarmed many people (Mackenzie 2013 4).
“It is about ending the incredible despair that exists in many parts of this country where – as a result of unemployment and low wages, suicide, drugs and alcohol – millions of Americans are now dying, in an ahistorical way, at a younger age than their parents (Sanders).” Suicide, drugs, and alcohol are all hard hitting subjects to most, especially suicide. And the fact that he mentions young Americans are succumbing to these things evokes pathos because children are seen more innocent and untouched by society than adults. Therefore, seeing a child, adolescent, or young adult succumb to any of the previously mentioned things would be devastating for most to hear and see.
Affirmative Action Reader pg. 244 “ those many in our society that are darker, poorer, more identifiably foreign will continue to suffer the poverty, marginalization, immersion and incarceration.” Statistics are staggering Racial Disparities in Incarceration African Americans constitute nearly 1 million of the total 2.3 million incarcerated population, they are incarcerated at nearly six times the rate of whites, what’s shocking is that one in six black men had been incarcerated as of 2001 and if the trends continues one in three black males born today can expect to spend time in prison during his lifetime. I am for affirmative action, as I believe that when the late President John F Kennedy signed the affirmative action on March 6th 1961,
Therefore someone will always fail to abide by the rules. Punishing all of the American citizens by the MLDA being raised to 21 is not the right way to go about and promote safe driving. The United States is not the worst place for drunk driving incidents; in fact, it is one of the lowest. According to Niall McCarthy there are more dangerous roads than that of the U.S., “58% on South Africa’s roads can be attributed to alcohol consumption… In the United States, 31% of all road accidents… In the United Kingdom and Germany, road deaths involving alcohol consumption are rarer at 16 % and 9 % respectively,” (McCarthy). South Africa is one of the most dangerous countries to drive in due to traffic fatalities encouraged by alcohol.
Throughout history, African Americans have been wrongfully convicted of crimes. The Jim Crow era made it extremely hard for African Americans to live a peaceful life. Today, if African Americans are wrongly convicted about a crime or an issue, they do not make it to trial. Their trial beings when they are assaulted by law enforcement, the new lynch mob, Police corruption and brutality has been an ongoing problem within the United States frequently. Though African American youth have been targeted by the police, these events are happening all too often.
These factors create vulnerable circumstances for both inmates and the society. Moreover, these are possibly clear symbols of a failed concept, this raises questions on the methodological aspect of private prisons. Another disturbing effect the privatization of prisons has contributed to, is noted by Ecenbarger, (2012). It involves a case whereby thousands of young men, were wrongfully convicted with many not even receiving legal representation. These horrific events of corruption occurred during 2003 and 2004.
Research findings have suggested that the decriminalization of drugs would result in a less adversarial drug market in which conflicts have tended to arise among dealers as well as between dealers and buyers (Common Sense for Drug Policy, 2007, p. 21). Essentially, although drugs have been held accountable for gang violence and other acts of violence that have occurred within communities, the illegality of drugs indeed may have aggravated the situation. In addition, it has become evident that one of the primary objectives of the war on drugs, which is to limit supply and demand, has been largely ineffective. CSDP (2007) “According to the United Nations, profits in illegal drugs are so inflated that three-quarters of all drug shipments would have to
However, those who view the world from a comfortable distance are yet to sympathize with the many who are caught up in the criminal-justice system. Many are stripped of their basic civil and human rights. “People who have been incarcerated are often denied the right to vote, excluded from juries, and relegated to a racially segregated and subordinated existence” (Alexander). They are often legally discriminated in employment due to their record as a felon, housing and even access to public benefits. They are oppressed by the system because they are now viewed as criminals and often are lead back to their previous lifestyles before prison; life of