Title: Mendez v. Westminster (1946) Abstract: The Mendez v. Westminster (1946) was the stepping stone to ending school segregation in California. The lawsuit was led by Gonzalo Mendez and five other parents who were denied enrollment of their children in an Anglo school. This led them to protest and then file a class-action lawsuit against the Westminster School District of Orange County California. Accusing them of segregating Mexican and Latin decent students. With the help attorney Dave Marcus, the plaintiffs were able to prove segregation in schools by using social and educational theories conducted by social scientist. District Court Judge Paul McCormick ruled in Mendez favor confirming California school districts were segregating students by their skin color and surnames. He held that public school segregation was a violation …show more content…
Board of Education that ended school segregation. Mendez led the path to ending school segregation and white privilege in the education system. Case Study: In the legal case Mendez v. Westminster (1946) a group of parents filed a class-action lawsuit against the Westminster School District of Orange County. But before discussing this case, it is important to understand the roots of Mexican American school segregation. Segregation of Mexican Americans from the dominant Anglo race has been around for many years. Since the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexican Americans have been treated like a second-class race facing racism and segregation. As a result, segregation in the education system affected Mexican American children. An increasing number of Mexican Americans across California led to an increase of Mexican children enrolling in schools. Author David James Gonzales (2017), explores the degrading school facilities Mexican students were assigned to. The city of Westminster had its own segregated schools: Westminster Grammar (Anglo school) and Hoover Elementary (Mexican school). Hoover Elementary
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INTRODUCTION “We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place.” -Chief Justice Earl Warren Separate But Equal, directed by George Stevens Jr, is an American made-for-television movie that is based on the landmark Brown v. Board of Directors case of the U.S. Supreme court which established that segregation of primary schools based on race, as dictated by the ‘Separate but Equal’ doctrine, was unconstitutional based on the reinterpretation of the 14th amendment and thus, put an end to state-sponsored segregation in the US. Aims and Objectives:
The defendants argued the Mexican American children were “Spanish speaking”, that their English needs would be appropriate in a segregated school facility. This segregation based on “instructional needs” was the first of its kind and it served to separate Mexican children from White children. Valencia brought this case to light in particular because it was the first case that a Mexican American, and what was also brought to attention was that school districts were neglecting Mexican American students by sending them to schools were student teachers practiced their teaching, hence, these children were mistreated and were receiving less of an education than other (White) children. This was the start of racialized
Notаbly absent from the opinion, as it was in Plessy, is any citаtion to a Supreme Court cаse that considered whether the prаctice of segregating schools was a violation of the Fourteenth Аmendment. It was an open question for the Court. The Court аdmitted that the precedent to which it cited involved discriminаtion between whites and blacks rаther thаn other rаces. However, the Court found no аppreciable difference here—"the decision is within the discretion of the state in regulating its public schools, and does not conflict with the Fourteenth Аmendment."
Seven years later, in 1954, the court decided in Brown v. Board of Education that a “separate but equal” policy in school is a violation of the Constitution and therefore not practicable. Also in 1954, the case Hernandez v. Texas determined that the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed equal protection to all racial groups including Mexican-Americans (cf. Nittle 2015). With that in mind, Mexican-Americans in the 1960s and 70s started to question the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ceded Mexican territory to the United States and ended the Mexican-American War.
The goal of the suit against the Board of Education was getting equal access to educational rights within the school system. Unable to enroll in the all white schools, due to their race, the family filed suit on February 28, 1951 against the Board of Education within Kansas Supreme Court. They lost the court case in the Kansas Court, but quickly appealed the case to the United States Supreme Court. When the case reached the U.S. Supreme Court, five cases were brought together to form Brown v Board of Education, “…Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Briggs v. Elliot, Davis v. Board of Education of Prince Edward Country (VA), Boiling v. Sharpe, and Gebhart v. Ethel… facts of each case are different, the main issue in each was the constitutionality of state-sponsored segregation in public schools” (U.S Court). Through the hearing, the subject of separate but equal was finally being
“In Texas and California, Mexican Americans were involved in numerous desegregation court battles,” Muñoz reports, “the first was ‘Jesus Salvatierra v. Independent School District’ in Del Rio, Texas in 1930” This was a result of Mexican American students having less resources than their white counterparts.
Board of Education is a very important landmark case. This case addressed the constitutionality of segregation in public schools back in the early 1950s. When the case was heard in a U.S. District Court a three-judge panel ruled in favor of the school boards. The plaintiffs then appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. The Supreme Court went through all its procedures and eventually decided that “Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” ().
This proves political leaders tried to take matters into their own hands and rule in ways to end segregation. If they had not passed this law, then it could have taken many more years to stop segregation in colleges and other areas this law would influence to
Decades ago, children of various races could not go to school together in many locations of the United States. School districts could segregate students, legally, into different schools according to the color of their skin. The law said these separate schools had to be equal. Many schools for children that possessed color were of lesser quality than the schools for white students. To have separate schools for the black and white children became a basic rule in southern society.
He brought all of the Justices to agree to support a the decision declaring segregation in public schools unconstitutional. On May 14, 1954, he delivered the opinion of the Court. It said that "We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. . ."Although it took a very long time before all segregated school systems were to be desegregated, Brown and Brown II contributed greatly to the cause for getting the process
The struggle for equal education has been an ongoing struggle in American society. On May 17th, 1945, Brown vs. Board of Education demolished the idea of segregation and sparked the African American Civil Rights movement. However, seven years before this court case, another one was being fought. Mendez vs. Westminster was taking place in Orange County, California, advocating for desegregation of Hispanic schools. Two years after the events that took place in Topeka, Kansas, the court ruled that forced segregation was unconstitutional.
The Court declined his argument. The Court determined that the segregated schools were considerably equal enough under the Plessy doctrine. It wasn 't until the mid twentieth century when Brown v Board of Education came into play that Plessy’s argument was given the okay by the constitution. The Court tried to use Plessy v. Ferguson to deny the argument that Oliver Brown was giving during the Brown v. Board of Education case. Once the Courts decided that separating children by race could have an overall affect on the black children 's ability to learn.
5 Brown v. Board of Education There were many arguments both for and against school segregation. One was the claim that educational decisions were to be left to the state and local courts, and not to be decided by the Supreme Court. Another was that students should be taught where they are most comfortable learning. It was thought that white children were more comfortable learning with white children and the same goes for African-American children. Also, students must be given and equal learning environment, not the same school.
Within the public educational system, children interact with all sorts of people. Personally, I went to a public elementary school local to Palm Springs. Vista Del Monte or in English, "View of the Mountain" was a mostly Hispanic school. Even the name is in Spanish. I could count the number of Caucasian people in my class on one hand.
Brittney Foster SOCY 423 UMUC 03/01/2018 Racial integration of schools Racial integration is a situation whereby people of all races come together to achieve a common goal and hence making a unified system. Racial integration of schools is well elaborated in the two articles by Pettigrew and Kirp. These two articles say that combination in the American schools since 1954 has unceremoniously ushered out the Brown versus Board of Education which was a decision made by the Supreme Court. The topic of discussion of these two articles hence is relevant to our course since it gives us the light of how racial desegregation and racial integration shaped America’s history.