Depending on the type of tumor treatment (radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy), irradiated tissue volume, radiation dose, splitting, and overall duration of treatment, late swallowing disorders incidence may vary up to 50% of irradiated patients [6-8]. Tumor site, stage, age of patient, pre-treatment weight loss, pre-treatment swallowing disorders and smoking are other contributing factors of RT-induced swallowing disorders’ rates [9-11]. The swallowing can be objectively assessed using videofluoroscopy of modified barium  and fibroscopic endoscopic assessment or even functional tests . Silbergleit et al.  developed the DHI (Dysphagia Handicap Index), which measures the disabling effect of dysphagia on the emotional and functional aspects of the
Question 5: In the case history it states that Thomas does not cough when he drinks and from the clinical swallow exam and the cranial nerve examination it has identified that Thomas demonstrates a pro-longed oral phase. There was no evidence that Thomas has any pharyngeal difficulties once he initiates the swallow. Therefore, it is appropriate to start oral food trials with Thomas as there is no potential risk of aspiration at this stage. Cichero and Murdoch (2006) have identified conditions that the client must be presenting when going to trial foods and liquids.
Five hundred and seventy eight of the students were from a Mexican background, while one hundred and seventy two were Chinese, and one hundred and seventy one were European. Fifty two percent of the students were girls, while forty-eight percent were boys. DESCRIBE THE METHOD/S USED TO EXAMINE THE HYPOTHESIS The researchers chose to use an initial background questionnaire that was given to each of the schools and then the students were asked to use a daily diary checklist that was to be used at the end of each day over a fourteen day period. The students were asked to report their emotions and keep a record of any events had occurred that day with either parents or family members, friends, or significant others.
The appraising process was the most difficult from this activity but was one of the most important steps in selecting our evidence. Questions in the table such as “Is the aim of the study clear?” , “Were the subjects randomized?” and “Was there a control condition?” etc provided an objective method to evaluate the articles and their research.
These variables can be controlled to limit their effect on the experimental conditions. Therefore, is not relevant in observation or descriptive studies that are merely report findings. When internal validity is associated with experimental research it refers to how well the study was run ,and how confidently one can conclude that the change in the dependent variable was produced only by the independent variable and not by any anything else. 1. Single-subject experimental: subjects serve as their own controls 2.Use a true experimental research design at one or more large demonstration sites, this method uses random assignment to create
The discussion will be reviewed to highlight whether it reflects the results obtained in the study. The conclusion will be checked if it actually achieved the objective of the study. References will be analysed to check its completeness, relevance and current or old
In those with a suboptimal fit (n=107), the gastric tube could be easily passed in 92.5%. Even with a poor fit, the gastric tube could be passed easily in 13 of the 15 cases. This indicates a proper positioning of the SLMA at the upper end of the oesophagus despite the fit appearing suboptimal as per the criteria. In 10 (5.1%) patients the gastric tube could not be passed which indicates less than ideal positioning at the upper end of the oesophagus and the larynx with risk of aspiration of gastric contents negating the benefits of using a
These symptoms include the acid-induced erosion of the esophagus and enamel, halitosis, malnutrition, severe weightiness loss and an unquenchable appetite. Individuals may Meacham Begin regurgitating within a minute following consumption, and the full-of-the-moon cycle of uptake and regurgitation can mimicker the binging and purging of bulimia. Diagnosis of rumination syndrome is non-invasive and based on a history of the individual. Treatment is promising, with upwards of 85% of individuals responding positively to treatment, including infants and the mentally
Pharynx The pharynx is the passageway between the mouth and the esophagus and is shared with the respiratory tract. The epiglottis is a cartilaginous flap that closes the opening to the larynx when food is being swallowed down the pharynx. Food is deflected away from the trachea to prevent particle aspiration (inhalation).
To explore this issue ethically, I would use a decision-making model by Michael McDonald which consists of various steps. Collect information and identify the problem Since Mr. John is unable to swallow, it would be dangerous for him to be orally