Activity 1 Increasing extracellular K+ reduces the net diffusion of K+ out of the neuron through the K+ leak channels because it caused to decrease in the concentration gradient. Increasing extracellular K+ causes the membrane potential to change to a less negative value because extracellular K+ is increasing, which it will cause intracellular K+ to be less. A change in extracellular Na+ did not alter the membrane potential in the resting neuron because there are a lot of K+ leak channels than Na+ leak channels The relative permeability of the membrane to Na+ and K+ in a resting neuron is that Na+ leak channel is less, but K+ leak channels has more so the membrane become less permeable to Na+. A change in Na+ or K+ conductance would affect the resting membrane potential by changing the difference …show more content…
The effect of lidocaine differ from the effect of TTX is lidocaine’s effect is reversible and TTX’s effect is inreversible. The response at R2 after lidocaine application necessarily wouldn’t be zero because of the action potential. Some axons may be unaffected that cause a response to be greater than zero. Fewer action potentials are recorded at R2 when TTX is applied between R1 and R2 because TTX blocked the voltage gated channels in R2. Fewer action potentials recorded at R2 when lidocaine is applied between R1 and R2 because it blocked membrane potential and lidocaine’s effect is reversible. A dentist should inject the lidocaine to block pain perception in the nerve so it can prevent pain on the area. TXX is not used because it is irreversibly blocked it. Actity 5 Inactivation is voltage-gated sodium channel refuse sodium to pass through. The absolute refractory period is an action potential can’t be triggered in refractory period, even a greater stimulus is applied. The threshold for the second action potential change as you further decreased the interval between the stimuli is
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Results The lab experiment was done in two parts, one with the NAND, NOR, XOR and Hex Inverters and the other with a 7483 full adder gate, both will verify the truth table when two input bits and a carry are added together. The circuits were built by examining the 1 bits through a K-Map to create a Boolean expression for the sum and carry. The Boolean expression for the sum was A⊕B⊕C and the carry as AB+BC_in+AC_in. From these two expressions, we notice that we must use two exclusive-ORs gates in the sum inputs for A, B, and C. For the sum, we have to use NOR and NAND (the only available gates from the lab manual).
The energy associated with each node would be displayed with each node. The nodes except the main source (that are fixed) are mobile. Energy Calculation: …………………………………………………………….Equation 9.2 Where, B= Magnetic flux density(Magnetic flux density is defined as the amount of magnetic flux in an area taken perpendicular to the magnetic flux 's direction.)
%% Init % clear all; close all; Fs = 4e3; Time = 40; NumSamp = Time * Fs; load Hd; x1 = 3.5*ecg(2700). ' ; % gen synth ECG signal y1 = sgolayfilt(kron(ones(1,ceil(NumSamp/2700)+1),x1),0,21); % repeat for NumSamp length and smooth n = 1:Time*Fs '; del = round(2700*rand(1)); % pick a random offset mhb = y1(n + del) '; %construct the ecg signal from some offset t = 1/
1. Identify the range of senses involved in communication • Sight (visual communication), Touch (tactile communication), Taste, Hearing (auditory communication), Smell (olfactory communication) 2. Identify the limited range of wavelengths and named parts of the electromagnetic spectrum detected by humans and compare this range with those of THREE other named vertebrates and TWO named invertebrates. Figure 1: the electromagnetic spectrum source: www.ces.fau.edu Vertebrates Human Japanese Dace Fish Rattlesnake Zebra Finch Part of electromagnetic spectrum detected ROYGBV (visible light) detected by light sensitive cells in the eye called rods and cones.
In lab 3.1 we took a look at attentions and how different task require different amounts of attention for certain tasks. When a secondary task is added the participant has not done before or is difficult, it task away attention or “ space” for the primary task. For this lab we wanted to see how our walking would change when our attentional demands changed with the addition different task to perfumer using a tennis ball. In condition one the participant was asked to walk across the room (there and back) for a total of five trials.
Dayma Padron Explain how the structure of the plasma membrane influences the movement of oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and sodium ions (Na+). The cells looks like tiny and insecure organisms in our body, but the reality is that without its perfect cellular organization, and essential functions, our body will be fragile, and we would live a short life. The plasma membrane, which is the wall of the cells, are composed of half lipids and half proteins, and about 5 to 10 percent of carbohydrates (Cooper, 2000). The membrane form a phospholipid bilayer, with fluid texture (cytoplasm), and acts like a barrier to protect its components from the outside neighbors, receptor, control mobility, maintain shape, and ensure that every part perform its
RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL When the neuron is not sending a signal at rest the membrane potential called as resting membrane potential. In this stage, permeability of K+ much greater than Na+ When a neuron is at rest, the inside of the neuron is negative relative to the outside. Although the concentrations of the different ions endeavor to balance out on both sides of the membrane, they cannot because the cell membrane sanctions only some ions to pass through channels (ion channels). At rest, potassium ions (K+) can cross through the membrane facilely. Additionally at rest, chloride ions (Cl-) and sodium ions (Na+) have a more arduous time crossing.
Precisely when the nerve is still, the measure of positive charge from the sodium modifies the measure of negative charge from the potassium. This is known as the resting layer potential. Precisely when potassium leaves the nerve or sodium enters it, the electrical charge changes, enabling the electrical motivation to encounter the nerve. By the end of the day, the nerve
1. Chloride ions will diffuse into the cell, as it is moving from an area of high concentration, to an area of low concentration. Chloride ions will diffuse into the cell because the equilibrium potential of chloride ions is more negative than the membrane potential, therefore when chloride ions diffuse into the cell the equilibrium potential of chloride ions and the membrane potential will become more balance. If, by the process of active transport, chloride ions moved out of the cell this would create a bigger gap between the equilibrium potential of chloride ions and the membrane potential. 2.
Codeine (3-methylmorphine) is a weak agonist at opioid receptors (mu, kappa, delta and sigma). The drug is converted to morphine, in the liver by an isoenzyme of CYP450, which is its active component. Opioid receptors are found at presynaptic and postsynaptic clefts and produce various effects when stimulated. The active form of codeine binds to opioid receptors at the pre-synaptic cleft and inhibits the opening of calcium channels, reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, noradrenalin, glutamate, seratonin and substance P. When it binds to opioid receptors at the postsynaptic cleft, it stimulates the opening of potassium channels, causing hyperpolarisation of the neuron and hence, inhibits the generation
In Group II, 4 patients had moderate loss of sensation but these had complete motor block and required to be supplemented with 30mg pentazocine and 5mg diazepam. TABLE 5:-Central nervous system effect : level of Sedation Group I Group II 0 (Normal) 49 (98%) 50 1 (Drowsiness) 1 (2%) NIL 2 (Sleep but arousable) NIL NIL 3 (Unarousable with loss of verbal contact ) NIL NIL In group I only one patient had slight drowsiness from which we did not encounter any problem, while no patient of group II showed adverse effect on central nervous system effects.
Background: Explain on the cellular level how dropping warm Ringers solution on the frog’s heart would affect the cells of the SA node. Dropping warm Ringers solution on the frog’s heart would increase the heart rate because the calcium channels open faster. Explain on the cellular level how dropping warm Ringers solution on the frog’s heart would affect the cells of the contractile muscle of the ventricles. Dropping warm Ringers solution on the frog’s heart would increase the heart rate because the actin binds to the myosin more quickly due to the calcium channels opening faster leading to faster contraction of the heart.
Energy was used to set up the ion gradient and that is why there are more sodium ions outside the membrane than the inside. The sodium ions are transported forcefully outside the cell membrane and the potassium ions are transported forcefully inside the cell membrane. The energy that is used for this is in the form of ATP which is broken down into ADP + P2. This is known as a sodium potassium pump. This process is called an active transport which means that it uses energy by breaking down a molecule of ATP.