Kylinn Walston RADT 3143 Chapter 1: Cellular Biology 1-1. Explain how the structure of the plasma membrane influences the movement of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and sodium ions. a. The plasma membrane is extremely important because of its multi-functionality to each cell, it is what keeps the cell complete. The membrane structure is determined by the lipid bilayer, and proteins determine the membrane functions. The membrane has a lipid bilayer containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. This bilayer blocks hydrophilic substances from passing while still allowing water diffusion. This allows oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules, both lipid-soluble molecules, to diffuse through the bilayer easily. Water molecules, due to their small size, …show more content…
Modes of inheritance can be described as the patterns of inheritance of how a disease is transmitted in families. If there are known factors about the mode of inheritance, information about the disease gene itself can be revealed. Four modes of inheritance for single genetic diseases are: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant, and X-linked recessive. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive involve genes that occur on 22 pairs of autosomes. X-linked dominant and X-linked recessive, as their name implies, occurs on the X chromosome. (Huether 47) Autosomal dominant and X-linked dominant are similar in the matter that they both only require one copy of a diseases allele to express the phenotype in a at risk person. While on the other hand, autosomal recessive and X-linked recessive require two copies of the disease allele in order to have an individual become susceptible. (Genetics …show more content…
The most important intracellular buffer systems are phosphate and protein. The most important plasma buffer systems are carbonic acid-bicarbonate and the protein hemoglobin. The carbon acid-bicarbonate buffer is a major extracellular buffer and operates within the lungs and the kidneys. To decrease the amount of carbonic acid the lungs function to remove carbon dioxide and leave water remaining. In turn, the kidneys use the carbon dioxide and water to create or absorb bicarbonate. The lungs and kidneys work hand in hand because the lungs adjust the acid concentration quickly while the kidneys reabsorb or produce bicarbonate. What the lung and the kidney are doing for each other is termed compensation. Protein buffering is used in both intracellular and extracellular buffering. Proteins are considered negative buffers and pair well with hydrogen. An intracellular blood buffer like hemoglobin is used because it binds well with hydrogen ions and carbon dioxide. The venous blood, or hemoglobin that isn’t saturated with oxygen, is a better buffer than arterial blood. The phosphate buffer system is important because it regulates the pH in the cytosol. Dibasic phosphate and ammonia are considered renal buffers. Once buffered, the hydrogen is secreted and buffered within the lumen by phosphate and ammonia. As stated above in the carbonic acid-bicarbonate, the bicarbonate is then reabsorbed. This results in new bicarbonate within the plasma. This attributes to the
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Inheritance by Dr. Sharon Moalem is an exceptional book. Dr. Moalem’s goal for writing this book is to convey a new idea of genetics and inheritance to the reader. In middle school and high school we were taught that our genetics comes from our parents and that they are fixed throughout our lifetime, but Dr. Sharon Moalem brings the idea that the environment may alter them. He states that the food we eat and the trauma we endure during life can imprint onto our genes. Dr. Moalem works with rare genetic disorders where he accumulates his knowledge from research to help treat his patients with changing some environmental factors in their lives.
Elevation in PCO2 is never due to an increase in CO2 production. Acute VS Chronic places a role in either are dumping bicarbonate or holding on to it. With chronic respiratory acidosis the kidneys hold on to bicarbonate. If the respiratory acidosis persists then the plasma bicarbonate rises
Biology, the study of life and living organisms, is complex and encompasses a multitude of theories and ideas. In AP Biology, the first unit covered was evolution. Chapters 29, 31, 39, 40, 41, 42, and 43 in the textbook, Campbell’s Biology in Focus, not only discusses the four main ideas of biology: evolution, energy, information, and systems, but it also gives examples of each in order to help guide the reader’s understanding of the concepts. The first big idea of AP Biology is: “the process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.” Chapter 39 in the textbook encompasses this main idea through discussing natural selection and genetic diversity.
The daphnia, similarly to most simple invertebrates does not have red blood cells or lungs. Hemoglobin is responsible for carrying oxygen and nutrients to the blood for daphnia. Hemoglobin production increases under stressful situations for daphnia, allowing survival in low oxygen environments. Daphnia have an open circulatory system, similarly to most other arthropods. Hemolymph is pumped through the hemocoel, a body cavity during circulation.
For example, the dominant genes that I have are brown eyes, dark brown hair, my height, my skin color, oily skin and my acne. These are the dominant genes that I got from my mom and dad. The dominant genes are practically the genes that overpower the recessive genes from the other person or from recessive genes they had from there parents. Another example, the recessive genes that I have are my nose, lips, that's pretty much of what I can think of. Mostly the dominant genes that I have are from my dad's side of the
The cell membrane regulates the deoxyribonucleic acid, enzymes, and it builds a pathways for any reaction such as metabolic. When waste products are present the cell membrane gets rid of it and the cell membrane allows important things inside . A great example of what the cell membrane allows in or out is water and oxygen. Specific molecules are only made to enter the cell which is also called semipermeable. Molecules can be passed by active transport or either passive transport.
Introduction- The discourse community of scientists in the field of genetics attempt to find solutions to problems with genes, and heredity. For over a century, popular articles have played a crucial role by building a communication medium between scientists and their audience who are people interested in keeping up with the upcoming science. These articles have been influenced by changes in the audience, exigence, and constraints experienced by the community. Therefore, by analyzing the changes in the popular articles through the years we can understand the growth of the discourse community.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy occurs on the DMD gene, but the DMD gene is on the X chromosome. This means it is sex-linked, or in the sex chromosomes, but it is also a recessive gene. This means that males are more likely to get it because they only have one copy of the X chromosome, so there is no other healthy X chromosome to compensate for their mutated one. Since Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is sex-linked, it does have a hereditary component. The following Punnett Squares show the likelihood of parents who are Heterozygous, Homozygous Dominant, or Homozygous Recessive offspring having Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
1. Similar to other diseases like, say, cancer, having family members who have it can increase your chance of getting it, though specific genes have been difficult to truly pin. 2. For those with Down syndrome, a gene contained in the extra chromosome increase the risk. 3.
In Tube A with the water snail, cellular respiration is being undergone. Tube B, is a aquatic plant so, for this tube, photosynthesis is most likely happening. Tube C has both the water snail, and the aquatic plant which means there is going to be an equilibrium of both processes being the photosynthesis, and cellular respiration. Tube D is the control. BTB or bromthymol blue is a solution used to detect changes in pH. The detection of pH is associated with the amount of CO2 present, meaning that the pH changes with the amount of CO2.
This lets us to notice what in the red blood cell was able to permeable across the cell membrane, since they were placed in different osmolality solutions we are able observe the tonicity of the cell’s behavior. When the Erythrocyte is placed into a hypotonic solution, the cell will swell because water will move gradually into the cell. The concentration of solutes are lower outside than the inside of the cell, so the water will move in the cell and cause the cell to swell. If the cell was placed to hypertonic solution, the solution has a higher solute concentration than the cell, so the water moves out the cell and causes the cell to shrink. When the red blood cell is placed into a isotonic solution, the concentration of the
The risk to pass the defective gene and have affected child from two carrier parents is 25% with each pregnancy while the chance for having a child who is a carrier like the parents is 50% with each pregnancy. The chance for a child to receive normal genes from both parents and be genetically normal for that particular trait is 25%. The risk is the same for males and
This means since my father’s earlobes are attached, differing from my mom’s free hanging ones, one of them has a homozygous recessive genotype. Due to the fact my brother and I both have free hanging earlobes like my mother, the probability is higher that free hanging earlobes are a dominant trait. For example, if my mom’s trait was heterozygous, meaning her phenotype would still be that of a dominant one, the probability my parents have a child with free earlobes is 50% along with the chance of having a child with attached at also 50 %. If my mom carried the homozygous dominant alleles instead of the heterozygous, the probability my parent’s offspring would have free hanging earlobes would be