The most accurate way to determine RQ is through the bicarbonate buffer reaction where the amount of hydrogen ions show metabolism. Although both RQ and RER measure the exchange rate of O2 and CO2, the two are different because RQ is measured at the cellular level in the tissues, while
Explain. A. polydactyly is actually a autosomal dominate trait & not sex linked. Q. what specifically caused this disorder? A. what causes polydactyly are genetic defect or underlying hereditary syndrome. Its actually the gene that is responsible for it is GLI3 its what genes work and which ones don’t.
23 inherited from the father called paternal and 23 from the mother called maternal. On the 46 chromosomes there are alleles that code for certain traits. If some allelic traits are not expressed (imprinted) can cause genetic disorders like Prader-Willi or Angelman syndrome (2013, Klug). Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome Prader-Will and Angelman are two
Introduction The purpose of this lab is to use control variables to help identify different macromolecules. Biological systems are made up of these four major macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are sugar molecules (monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides) which make them the most abundant macromolecule on the earth. Lipids (oils and fats, phospholipids and steroids) are insoluble in water and perform many functions such as energy source, essential nutrients, hormones and insulators (Lehman, 1955). Proteins are made up of peptide bonds holding amino acids together to perform biological functions like enzymes, antibodies, for transport and structure (Asmus, 2007).
Thus, some of the citric acid cycle are intermediates for other important reactions like the biosynthesis of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids. Due to the many functions of the citric acid cycle is also considered to be the "central hub of metabolism". This is because, as most of the absorbed nutrients, the fuel molecules are oxidized ultimately within the Krebs Cycle and its intermediates are used for various biosynthetic pathways. Figuratively, one can look at the citric acid cycle as a roundabout introduce, in which the nutrients (carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids) drive in and drive out again at the different locations for the synthesis of other
The resting potential is generated by the specific changes in membrane permeability for of potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) ions, which in turn result from concentrated changes in functional activity of ion channels. Cell membranes are made up of a phospholipid bilayer- consisting of two layers of linked fatty molecule. Various specialized proteins, such as ion channels, float in this bilayer. Ion channel are membrane-spanning proteins that allows the passage of certain ions through the membrane. The cell membrane of a neuron is selectively permeable to potassium ions, meaning that ion channels that will only allow potassium ions to exit or enter the cell freely.
I have a lot of interest in health and human nutrition. Therefore I wanted to examine the breakdown properties of a digestive enzyme while under the influence of a strong inhibitor. For my experiment I chose amylase as an enzyme and starch as a substrate (which is broken down into glucose by Amylase). I selected Copper Sulphate as enzyme inhibitor against the concentration of 2% of Amylase solution. Light absorbance was the method used to
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
There are enzymes located on the intestinal brush border known as ferrireductases which reduce ferric iron to the more soluble ferrous state. Once reduced, the ferrous iron is then transported across the mucosal cells by the transporter protein divalent metal cation transporter 1