However, the enzyme will only deteriorate if there is a high concentration of sodium chloride and not if S3odium chloride is simply present. Therefore, by increasing the sodium chloride concentrations it is expected that the rate of change in absorbance, and therefore rate of reaction of amylase, will decrease exponentially as illustrated in the graph
• Importance of Osmosis in the industry: Water covers 70% of the Earth’s surface and is salt water, therefore not edible. Reverse osmosis is the process of desalination by forcing water through a semi-permeable membrane. Most of the dissolved salts, minerals and bacteria are trapped in the semi-permeable membrane while the water molecules are allowed to pass through, making the water edible. Applying reverse osmosis in areas where water is either unavailable or scarce could mean the difference in millions of people dying of thirst or lack of fresh water for drinking, sanitation and other vital human needs. Reverse osmosis is used in many countries, on a large scale as well as in private homes.
Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed. Enzymes are globular proteins that contain an active site. A specific substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme chemically and structurally (4). Enzymes also increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy for that reaction which is the minimum energy required for the reaction to take place (3). Multiple factors affect the activity of an enzyme (1).
However, molecules do not behave in the same way during the development, scale-up or manufacturing phases. Customising single‑use bioreactors to make them suitable for processing the specific molecules defeats their key advantage of plug‑and‑play. • Scale-up – The volume size (no more than 2000L) as well as the end of the product quality for large-scale manufacture is one of the main limitation for single use technology. • Scale-down - Scale‑down studies are generally conducted to establish the potential root cause of any deviation that has occurred or to perform a risk‑based study. The lower limits in working capacity of the single‑use bag type or single‑use system is prohibitively high to conduct such studies.
The nervous system works together with other systems to send signals to the brain. The central nervous is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. The nervous system is responsible for all the process the make human life possible. It lets us think, dream, and have a lifetime of memories. It also handles our most basic, involuntary actions and reactions
Reverse osmosis makes desalination work. We defined osmosis as a naturally occurring process in which a liquid such as water spontaneously passes through a membrane. The membrane allows some molecules like water through, but other molecules like salt are unable to easily pass through the membrane structure. It moves from a more concentrated solution to a less concentrated solution. So, in osmosis fresh water (High concentration of water molecules) moves to salt water (Low concentration of water molecules), as a result we get higher amount of salt water.
In the white matter area of the medulla oblongata contains ascending and descending nerve tracks which cross the brain and spinal cord. The protrusions in the white matter forms the pyramids with corticospinal nerve connect the cerebrum with spinal cord which controls the movement of voluntary muscles. These nerve tracks cross the left side to the right side of the body. The medulla regulates the force and heart rate through the cardiovascular system and medullary rhythmic area of respiratory center controls the respiratory processes. Other functions are controlling reflexes for vomiting, swallowing, sneezing and coughing and hiccupping.
If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted. When blood glucose goes low, however, (such as between meals, and during exercise) more and more glucagon is secreted. Like insulin, glucagon has an effect on many cells of the body, but most notably the
The central nervous system: The brain and the spinal cord form the central nervous system (CNS). The brain controls the body functions by sending and receiving messages through nerves. It is also aids in thought processing. 2. The peripheral nervous system: The network of nerves that branch out from the spinal cord and brain and spread out throughout the body form the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
On some occasions, diarrhea is accompanied by some abdominal discomfort or pain. Severe abdominal pain is not typical and, if present, may be a sign of more severe illness. If diarrhea is massive and results in dehydration, the condition becomes an emergency, and may potentially be lethal. Patients who experience dehydration are usually thirsty, and have dry throats. In older patients, the skin appears to be loose, and they may become very sleepy, confused or develop changes in behavior.
A Gly-chloride ion boundary is formed since glycine moves slower than chloride ion. However, glycine still runs slightly faster than other proteins. As a result, the glycine keeps pushing the protein towards the chloride ion. In other words, the proteins are trapped between glycine and chloride ion. The proteins form a very tight band inside the stacking gel.
Because the inside of the cell has become more positive due to the influx of sodium, the outside is relatively more negative, attracting the potassium. Thus the gradients push potassium ions out of the axon, helping the membrane potential go back to its value at rest. As the resting potential goes back to its original value, it is temporarily hyperpolarized due to the potassium ions just leaving and causing the charge between the inside and outside to differ more than resting potential (the inside is seemingly more negative in comparison to the outside).The resting potential is restored after the potassium ions diffuse away, even though the distributions of Na+ and K+ differ from what they were before the process. This is where the sodium-potassium pump comes back to reestablish the concentrations of the ions before the action
A depressant, by definition, reduces or diminishes a function or activity. A CNS depressant, therefore, would depress the activity of the central nervous system (CNS). Some drugs that are commonly used as sedatives, hypnotics (sleep aids), and anesthetics are CNS depressants. There are numerous CNS depressant drugs;
With every drug comes side effects and certain elements that must be taken into consideration before a medication is administered. Baclofen side effects include; mood changes, nausea, drowsiness, fatigue, vision disturbances, weakness, headache, light headedness, confusion and insomnia. Baclofen can also cause seizures and hallucinations, high fever, rebound spasticity, and muscle rigidity if discontinued abruptly. It is important that anyone taking muscle relaxants such as Baclofen understand the effects it has on the body. Those who operate heavy machinery or those who depend on muscle strength must take into consideration that Baclofen dose cause drowsiness and effects the alertness of those taking it.