The classification shown below was used for well over a hundred years. The classification lacks any obvious logic and defies scientific precepts. Two of the words/ Mongoloid and Caucasoid have linguistic bases that refer to geographic areas. But the last word/ Negroid/ refers to color. ``These were not based on genetic differences, but rather on European and European American stereotypes of cultural differences of physiological characteristics.`` "Whiteness Studies: The New History of Race in America" In 1866, Frederick Farrar lectured on the ``Aptitude of Races`` which he divided into 3
In chapter four of the book Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice authored by Joycelyn Pollock it discusses this very topic in great detail. On page 92 of the book the author presents a theory called Kohlberg’s Moral Stages to the reader. These stages are made up of the pre-conventional level which would be egoistic, the next level is the conventional level which is fitting into society, and lastly you have post-conventional which is transcending society. Each of those three levels is broken up into two different stages. Each of these three levels and the two levels in them involve qualitative differences to show the way in which people view the
In 2004, two years after Szonyi’s book was published, Pamela Crossley’s review was published in The American Historical Review. She believed that Szonyi’s argument revolved around the lineage institutions that existed during the Qing period. According to Crossley, Szonyi focused on paternal lineage as an institution and the “ambiguities” between social and ethnic identities. Crossley noticed throughout Szonyi’s work he utilized many pieces written by many historians, including Helen F. Siu and Liu Zhiwei, but spoke little of their impact on Practicing Kinship. Crossley’s review focuses primarily on two specific points of Szonyi’s research – paternal lineage and contradicting ideologies during the Qing dynasty, and localization of identities in the Ming dynasty.
The first section contains the examination of cultural relativism argument related to the human rights of women. The next section consists of the discussion of the detected similarities between two different human rights critique. The last section is the concluding part, presents the argument of the author
Gender identity is a controversial concept that has been discussed in terms of several perceptions such as psychological, social and political point of views. In consequence, it acquires different definitions and interpretations. However, in feminist works, using the feminist approach seems to be imperative because of its validity in analyzing the psychology of female heroines, as well as the psychology of female writers. This thesis attempts to clarify gender identity thought reading three postmodern gothic novels written by Angela Carter –a British contemporary writer. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to read the concept of gender identity in the terms of postmodern principles; it argues that Angela Carter in her postmodern gothic novels The
A Feminist Critique on Sylvia Plath’s Lady Lazarus Feminism is the belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes as well as the movement organized around this belief. (The American Heritage Dictionary). Feminist literary criticism is a literary movement which was enlightened by the feminist theory or the political movement of feminism, it uses feminist ideologies and principles as a tool to critique literature. Feminist criticism is broader and does not only focus on literature. It was a product of the second wave of feminism, which was in 1960s Peter Barry, Beginning Theory An Introduction To Literary And Cultural Theory, third edition, Manchester University Press, P. 116) .
Abstract In contemporary paremiology anti –proverbs are well-known category of proverbs. Around the world many studies have been conducted on introducing anti-proverbs and researchers have looked up on them from various literary and linguistics perspectives. Along with those studies the present study aims to comparatively analyze the structure of Turkish, Persian and English anti-proverbs based on the Reznikov (2009) model in order to indicate that there are similarities and differences among the nature of Turkish, Persian and English anti-proverbs. Keywords: Turkish /Persian/ English; Proverbs; Anti-proverbs 1. Introduction It is an established fact that proverbs are generally the quintessence of a people’s collective wisdom.
Though Scott was not so skilled in manipulating history as Shakespeare, yet he was able to give within the vaguely defined boundaries of fact and legend a very free play to his imagination. Edward Albert remarks, “Scott has often been called the prose Shakespeare, and in several respects the comparison is fairly just. He resembles Shakespeare in the free manner in which he ranges high and low, right and left, in his search for material. On the other hand, in his character-drawing he lacks much of the Elizabethan’s deep penetration. 4 A glance over even the titles of his novels shows how the heroic side of history for over six hundred years finds expression in his pages; and all the parties of these six centuries- Crusaders, Covenanters, Cavaliers,
In chapter 3, Mencius’s conception of the ethical ideal is presented based on the discussion of Confucius in the previous chapter; in addition to the four attributes, jen (仁 benevolence, humaneness), yi (義 righteousness, propriety), li (禮 observance of rites), chih (智 wisdom), Mencius’s idea of the unmoved heart/mind (不動心 pu tung hsin) attitude towards ming (命 decree, destiny) are also considered. After introducing the fundamental concepts, Shun begins further discussion and argumentation in remaining chapters. In Chapter 4, he investigates the relation between yi and hsin (心 heart/mind) in the context of Mencius’s disagreement with Kao Tsu and the Mohist Yi Chih; part of this discussion concerns Mencius’s response to the Mohist challenge. In Chapter 5, he deals with Mencius’s conceptions of self-cultivation, the restoration of political order, and the sources of ethical failure. Chapter 6, the last chapter, is on hsing (性 nature, characteristic tendencies) and Mencius’s claim that hsing is good, which contains Mencius’s response to the Yangist challenge and the differences with Hsün Tsu’s views on hsing.
Chapter-I INTRODUCTION: AMERICAN NOVEL INTRODUCTION The precise definition of the novel is difficult and to define it as a long narrative of prose fiction will not be satisfactory. Terry Eagleton asserts that there is no exact definition of the novel as a genre as he contends, “Not all novels are written in prose. There are novels in verse like Pushkin’s Eugene Onegin or Vikram Seth’s The Golden Gate.” Meanwhile the novel cannot be recognized by the number of its pages that according to some views may grant it a reasonable length to differentiate it from the short story or any other prose writings in which Eagleton adds that “Andre Gide’s The Immoralist described as a novel and Anton Chekhov’s The Duel as a short story, but they are