The influence of religion during the Reformation was a manifestation of the conflict of criticism toward the Catholic Church that shaped the events of the age. Although the peasants were primarily motivated towards economic and political justice, the Reformation introduced the German peasants to independent ideas and generated a movement against the nobility, as well as tying into the countermovement of the German peasant revolts of 1524 and 1525. Instead of seeking refuge in feudal authority, the peasants of Germany reflected religious ideas in their revolution by appealing to God’s authority. As the hold of the church's influence over society declined from the conflict of the Reformation, the leaders of the revolts optimized the growing animosity to generate support for the revolts. Correspondingly, religion expressed the …show more content…
One of the main contributors of the peasant riots, Thomas Müntzer, wrote to the peasants of Allstedt encouraging them to unite with the rebels and God’s will, by demolishing the princes’ towers (Doc 4). Müntzer was notoriously known for his violent onslaughts in the name of God and his theologian ideas, akin to Luther’s. He sustained the peasant resistance by declaring and modeling the revolt after the Protestant Reformation. Initially, the nobility ignored the peasant rebellion, as it only challenged the clergy; however, after the peasants ravaged the Church, they proceeded to barrage the nobility (Doc 7). Count Wilhelm wrote to the Duke of Prussia to criticize the nobility for downplaying and failing to control the revolts. However, Count Wilhelm reveals that the nobility were pleased with the revolts against the clergy and that they, in turn, supported the reformation. Since the peasants had revolted under the name of the Reformation, the revolts were
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The Protestant Reformation had a huge impact in all Europe in the sixteen century, but which ones were the factors that lead to it? It is very important to highlight that the European Christianity was falling into a noticeable corruption of its popes and some other high position members. Robbery, and even warriors were among of some factors that took the Cristian Church to a declining path. One of these examples was the Pope Julius II, which one won the nickname “the warrior pope” because he led armies against people. Furthermore, the church was not the only factor promoting this reformation, some other social changes were occurring with the masses in Europe; many of the peasants were being free especially in the western Europe.
The peasants disliked quite a few things and in 1524-1526 they expressed the ideas of them being equal with their lords (masters), and to be led and taught about the Lutheran religion. Document One states, “The peasants are blinded, led astray, and made witless.” meaning that they had no guide or source of the Lutheran teachings. The peasants wanted to be with the lords in church to get a proper knowledge of Lutheranism,. However, the lords did not want them to cause trouble in their church
There was were positive responses from laypeople as well as negative responses, and condemnation from government officials who tried to find a resolution. One significantly interesting response came from Martin Luther, one of the cited sources for the cause of the revolts. The peasants had been inspired by his ideas to revolt, however Luther gave a negative response in document 5. He called the main supporter and leader of the revolts, Thomas Müntzer, a “devil.” and concluded “Anyone who consorts with them goes to the devil with them and is guilty of all the evil deeds that they commit” (5).
The Protestant Reformation broke out in Germany in the beginning of 1517. The Church and the Pope began to lose power and authority and people began to question the teachings and ways of the Catholic Church. Ideas of new religions, such as Protestant, Lutheran, and Calvinists, started to spread throughout Europe. The Church was corrupt and started to lose followers. These problems led to people speaking out against the Church and it became a revolution of political and religious debates.
Social DBQ Beginning in the 16th century, there was a growing unrest among the serfs primarily in modern day Germany. High taxes, joined with the fact that peasants had no opportunity to increase their social standing, let alone the right to do so, gave an atmosphere of disaccord between the noble, and lower class. Internalizing the egalitarian ideologies of Martin Luther, it was easy for the peasants to feel like they had greater place in among society. However, due to semi-feudalistic attitudes of those days, peasants were the lowest social class and needed to stay that way for such a social structure to function. Martin Luther’s teachings that through faith everyone could be equal in God’s eyes gave peasants a false sense of equality,
Martin Luther was very angry about this, he believed that they forgot their place in the society, and how they are just peasants, nothing more (Document 5). Luther believed they were liars, and their Articles were not inspired by God. Lastly, Caspar Nützel hoped that God would grant peace throughout the society. As said by him in document 6, “It is indeed true that the poor, blind, and ignorant peasants have overstepped the mark with their unseemly behavior.” Caspar’s perspective of religion, along with the others, caused the uprising of peasants in
Thomas Muntzer supported the rebellions, he believed countries had finally stopped resisting God’s Will, and he supported the peasants taking down the unethical upper class (Doc 4). As a protestant preacher, Muntzer strived to kindle rebellions because he yearned for a drastic religious reform of the corrupt Catholic church (POV). Being the man that started the Reformation, Martin Luther supported the development of a new religion, but he did not support the violent process the peasants were using to further the reform (Doc 5). Luther was a man of strong faith and he understood that killing nobles, even if it was for God, was unchristian, therefore he didn’t endorse the German peasant revolts even though they were in his name (POV). Caspar Nutzel, similar to Luther, responded to the uprisings by saying that the authorities had been very suppressive, but the peasants did cross a line with their improper conduct (Doc 6).
A sense of identification that comes with being a part of a religious factions along with socioeconomic reasons lead to the spreading of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Johann-Wilhelm paints a picture of rampant thievery, barbary, and murder toward Huguenots. One specific point he mentions is, "more than four hundred peasants and farmers came into the city so as to pillage and steal, in recompense for the losses they had suffered during previous troubles. They butchered and massacred the unfortunate Huguenots without mercy" (120). This description appears to be focused less on religious furvert against the Protestants, but rather peasants were searching for a form of societal reparations.
An important figure during this time period was Thomas Müntzer. He was a priest and theologian who merged religious reform with social revolution. Although the movement was inspired by the ideas of Martin Luther, Müntzer preached equally against the Church and Luther, as he believed that they had humbled themselves to lay authorities. In an open letter to the people of Allstedt in 1525, Müntzer wrote, “How long are you going to resist G-d’s will?” (Document 6)
The true instigation for the Reformation came from the people of England. They knew what they were fighting for and did not shy away from the consequences of exile. Also, as shown earlier, these people were mostly made up of the youth of England. O’Day moved on to further detract from the image of Henry as a great reformer. “But Henry himself, doctrinally a Catholic and sharing little with the early Protestants other than a dislike of the power of Rome, was unlikely to remain content for long with such limited approbation.”
Reformation In our religious history people have made many sacrifices which led to death,war,and hardships that resulted in the reformation. For example, it took one man who was a part of the catholic church to stand up against all the wrongdoings of the catholic church and led to the reformation movement. A simple man who stood up for what he believed in inspired another and expanded his discoveries. These guys made sacrifices for the greater good, but like always there was one who did things for selfish reasons. The three individuals who contributed to the reformation were Martin Luther in Germany, John Calvin in Switzerland, and King Henry in Britain.
Reformation Propaganda The Reformation in the early 16th century started with Martin Luther questioning the authority of the Catholic Church by condemning the Pope for selling religious offices, letting religious leaders go against their vows, and selling indulgences; indulgences were contracts sold by the church to the people, to reduce people’s punishment for their sins. Luther proceeded to publicly confront and challenge the church and started his religion, Lutheranism, which only followed the Bible, not the Pope. At the time, people couldn’t read the Bible for themselves so they did not question the Catholic church’s supremacy and saw the clergy as delivering the word of God (Iordache 64). However, Martin Luther wanted people to read the
1. What were the sources of religious discontent that preceded the Reformation? The religious discontent was because of first and foremost, the sale of indulgences. Priests believed that if they sold pieces of paper to the peasants that the peasants would be cleared of their sins and have a step forwards towards an afterlife in heaven, instead of purgatory.
Thomas Muntzer said “How long are you going to resist God’s will? … Hammer away on the anvils of the princes … cast down their towers” (Doc 4) Muntzer's message is that people need to fight against the princes and officials, it is God’s will, a religious cause. This viewpoint is reasonable given that Thomas Muntzer wanted to better peasants lives, and was a celebrated theologian, and his audience was the lay people in Europe, it was understandable that many peasants would turn to Muntzer, believe in his extremism, and rebel. One other example, was the Peasant Parliament of Swabia, which claimed that “Hitherto we have been held as your poor serfs …