IVF-ET – (In vitro Fertilization Embryo Transfer). Explain its use and how it works. In vitro fertilization embryo transfer is used to help couples that are having problems to have babies naturally, sometimes the problem could come from either the man or woman or both. This procedure is also used as it is the often considered the simplest, the embryo transfer is used to facilitate conception.
The beginning of human life is a beautiful thing. God divinely created human beings to create, love, and nurture children made in His image and for His glory. However, not every couple has the ability to procreate naturally. For many couples the reality of infertility comes as a crushing reality to the hopes and dreams they hoped to one day share with their children. As scientific technology continues to grow, however, an answer to this dilemma has come to the forefront.
Surrogacy has always been an ethical problem worldwide since it involves a third party to be able to create a baby. There are two types of surrogacy; gestational and traditional. In both of these cases the father donates the sperm. In traditional surrogacy the surrogate mother’s eggs are used through artificial insemination and in gestational surrogacy the mother also donates the egg while the surrogate mother works as an incubator for the fertilized egg. Infertility occurs when the egg is unable to be successfully fertilized by the male sperm due to low sperm count, obesity, premature menopause and other factors such as sexually transmitted diseases..
Embryonic Research Every one of the 100 trillion cells in the human body is a direct descendant of the zygote cell, the primordial cell formed by the union of a mother’s egg and a father’s sperm. Each cell is genetically identical to the original zygote cell. Therefore, if a saliva sample was taken of a person, the DNA contained in that sample would be identical to the DNA found in the original cell when that person was only a single cell organism, it would contain all of the instructions used to originally create that person. The mystery of this process is that the zygote cell multiplies and eventually turns into all different kinds of cells that make up a human body.
Infertility treatments has once again been brought into attention. The pleasure that a newborn child can deliver to a human being or couple is undeniable, but some events recently involving IVF has left an uneasy feeling and some unanswered questions about fertility treatments. IVF had first been reported in the 1940s. Its first attempts included putting a human cells and human egg cell into the oviduct (the tube that the egg passes through from an ovary) of a monkey to try and fertilize them. Over time more testing and changers were made to the treatment which lead to a better understanding.
CHAPTER ONE 1.1 INTRODUCTION Infertility may be defined as the inability of a married couple to achieve pregnancy over a twelve-month period despite regular frequent unprotected sexual intercourse. Also, it could be the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth (Rowe & Farley, 1988). Infertility has a long history in many cultures. Recent global evidence shows infertility as a major public health problem. Infertility, or the inability to conceive, is a problem of global proportions, affecting between 8 and 12 percent of couples worldwide (Etuk, 2009), In developing countries, one in four ever married women of reproductive age are infertile due to primary or secondary infertility (WHO/DHS, 2004).
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Fertility is one of the major components of population growth. The past few decades have witnessed a major decline in world fertility majorly from developed countries, making global and even regional aggregates have widespread diversity in fertility change. In Asia and Latin America fertility declines over the past half century have been very permeating. Between the early 1950s and the early 2000s, the total fertility rate (TFR) dropped from 5.7 to 2.4 births per woman in Asia and from 5.9 to 2.3 births per woman in Latin America. In these regions just a few nations still have fertility rates higher than four births per woman (Bongaarts, 2011).
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Female Reproductive Organ Mattison (2012) stated in his Introduction to Male and Female Reproductive Function the structure of the female reproductive system as follows: “the female reproductive system is controlled by components of the central nervous system, including the hypothalamus and pituitary. It consists of the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the vagina”. The main focus of this study is the vagina. The vagina, defined by Hoffman (2006), is an elastic, muscular canal with a soft, flexible lining that provides lubrication and sensation.
Of all the systems of the body, the reproductive system is somewhat sui generis. In contrast to others, the reproductive system appears to be "sleeping" until puberty without significant involvement in vital body processes. When "wake up" after after more than a decade old, produces substantial changes in body anatomy and sentimental individual behavior. The primary sexual organs or gonads are the ovaries in females and testes in males, and these organs produce sex cells gametes.
Progress is defined as fast and onward movement towards a destination. Today’s society revolves around the concept; constantly innovating and upgrading every aspect of itself, in the quest for a better, more efficient world. Although at its core, progress is a pure, unblemished search for more. In practice, however, progress often becomes polluted by the goals of those who aim for it. The world in which we reside has been shaped and remade over and over by the different advances of the time.