That man in his natural state seeks to contribute to the common good. That since human corrupted values is a product of society, we need to critic society and its institutions and strive towards the conceptual idea of a “natural” society. John Locke another influential political philosopher, also argues that “beliefs, like other human differences, [are] largely the product of environment” and thus the fault of human irrationality is to be blamed on society. This theoretical reasoning is based upon the huge assumption that Man is naturally morally good. Blaise Pascal another major influence to Mainstream enlightenment reasoning, published his influential book Pensées posthumously in 1670, in which he tries to objectively convince that its better to believe that God exists, for you will be faithful and rewarded by God in the case he does exist.
Thomas Hobbes He liked to study various types of government. He thought that the government of a monarchy was better than democracy because he had no doubt that they were naturally wicked and were not to be trusted to govern. He believed that it was better to have a governor like a king that would know how to act like a leader and rule a country. He said that democracy was for the selfish people who were trying to hide their bad decisions. John Locke John Locke was born on August 29, 1632, in Wrington, England.
Thomas Paine’s influential essays, titled The Rights of Man and Common Sense, argue that humans are born with natural rights. Paine views human natures as essentially good, but capable of evil. In order to contain this evil there needs to exist an over-arching institution that would provide stability and peace. Paine argued that the government would play this role. However, he viewed the government as a necessary evil.
Locke’s ideas of enlightenment were influential in the creation of the document. Like Locke’s phrase from Two Treatises on Government, “life, liberty, and property,” Jefferson, however, changed this phrase to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” This phrase is slightly altered by Jefferson and exemplifies Locke’s belief in natural rights implying an individual’s own rights. Locke also believed that when a government were to become destructive, the people have the right to rebel and abolish it. A government that does not protect these rights becomes a tyranny and is determined to be overthrown. Montesquieu’s and Rousseau’s ideas of enlightenment were also incorporated in the document.
Also, Britain would not fully support america and our grand decisions. They had to make some hard decisions and Thomas Jefferson liked how they made a sacrifice to help their beloved country. Like America, France wanted a free country and a strong government. France and America are similar in other ways to. They both fought for what they thought is right, and wanted the people involved with the country.
Which brings me to the next Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire. Voltaire had a very big impact on society as he encouraged people to start having their own ideas. In Voltaire 's time period people were constantly punished for not agreeing with the church or the government. Voltaire believed that society would be much better off if there was freedom to have your own ideas. Voltaire believed that diversity was the key to success for society as he stated in The Philosophical Dictionary, "To be a good patriot is to wish that one 's city may be enriched by trade, and be powerful by arms"(Voltaire).
In the 18th century, Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau influenced the French Revolution through his ideas and principals. In his book, The Social Contract, Rousseau said that every man is born good until corrupted by society. Rousseau was correct in saying that people were born good, people were naturally born with a pure heart because God made us that way. However, one could argue that man is born evil based off of the perspective of society’s moral laws, which Rousseau may not have considered. Man is born evil because every human being is born with a desire for possession and a hunger for power.
His “Crusade for Moorish Dignity” in which he inspired workers to partake in a revolt against Levy Pants failed despite his best efforts. Calling this attempt a “crusade” draws on his Medieval philosophical fascination, but the motivation behind this “grand and decisive coup” was for the rights of workers which is a more liberal thought. Ignatius mocks Myrna’s liberal philosophy in carrying out liberal thoughts through more medieval means. He then goes on to call his plan “brilliant,” showing his confidence in the validity of his philosophy despite his actions being more liberal than his philosophy. Despite the irony in Ignatius’s actions not being typical of those of his philosophical ideologies, he does not waiver from the core ideas he
According to Rousseau, the best form of government is a direct democracy (Robison), but since Ralph fails to establish this form of government, the result is the boys falling into corruption and total chaos. Rousseau believes that civil society causes humans to become corrupt. His philosophy is centered upon the idea of “the general will,” which reflects society’s interest in a common good (Younkins). But individual desires can conflict with the general will, and civil society can actually damage the desire for a common good (Bertram). The general will in Lord of the Flies is the need to build shelters, establish a civilization, and most importantly keep the fire going with the ultimate purpose of rescue.
One of the strongest urges in human nature is to feel free. For innovation and advancement rebellion may be required. Rebellions should be against injustice and essentially for the benefit of the people rather than the noble or upper class. Era after era, and crisis after crisis, history shows us that uprisings and revolutions lead to a positive impact. Examples include the revolution in France after