Although Nathaniel Hawthorne didn’t seem to go through as much as Edgar Allan Poe in his life, having to only really worry about financial issues and his father passing away during his childhood, he still seemed to ponder on the darkness within humans. However, while Poe based his stories on certain elements of his life, Hawthorne seems to write about human nature simply because writers in those days got famous by being transcendentalists. In fact Hawthorne, wasn’t even interested in Romanticism, if not for his wife-to-be at the time. According to Biography.com, “Nathaniel Hawthorne ended his self-imposed seclusion at home about the same time he met Sophia Peabody, a painter, illustrator, and transcendentalist. During their courtship, Hawthorne spent some time at the Brook Farm community where he got to know Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau.
The narrator explains, “… there once lived near this place a meagre miserly fellow of the name of Tom Walker.” (Irving online). The author describes Tom as a miserly meagre man. Tom lacks quality and his greediness makes him even less valuable. Another example of Tom’s greediness is when the narrator states, “He built himself, as usual, a vast house, out of ostentation, but left the greater part of it unfinished and unfurnished out of parsimony.” (Irving online). Tom is so greedy that he builds a grand house but decides not to finish the rest of the house because he does not want to spend any more money.
People began to question the existence of God or a higher power and Gothic novels allowed writers and readers likewise to delve and analyze all those unexplored, unknown territories of life and beyond, through storytelling. To sum up, Gothic literature makes use of all that is valued by the romantics, such as intense emotions and aedthetics but has an almost sinister side. In addition to decadently aesthetic features, Gothic Romanticism also contains nihilistic features: the hold, handed down values are lost, dark, melancholic resigned moods. In the same way, morbidly absurd inclinations, the so-called "night sides" of the human mind as well as fantastic-ghostly and grotesque are discussed. In addition, this tendency, especially in the trivial literature, with its partly amoral-abnormal theme (incest, necrophilia), finds two manifestations: the horror romance and the ghost story.
In the late 18th century, writers and poets modified the individualism literary movement to direct their attention towards the gothic era. This theme is indeed a form of individualism, but it specifically inspired authors to bring awareness to the dark side of humanity. The authors in this time period believed that the only way individuals are able to express themselves and have a right to think their own thoughts or make their own decisions is to find their true self at their darkest moments. The gothic era usually obtained dramatic tones in their storylines, but also reflected on concerns the society had at the time of writing. Edger Allan Poe was a famous poet who often used certain strategies in his literary work to leave the reader in
In the 19th century two significant different genres in American literature emerged: Transcendentalism and Dark Romanticism/Anti-transcendentalism. Towards the middle of the 19th century, the Transcendentalism movement became significant in literature. Thus, as a reaction to the widespread movement, Dark Romanticism was founded. Transcendentalism was based on logical thinking and human’s consciousness, whereas, Dark Romanticism was different in many aspects. Transcendentalism emphasizes the power of one’s intuition and has a positive and educational tone, while Dark Romanticism has a more pessimistic and dark tone.
Willy never realized this and in turn it caused his mental health to deteriorate even more than it already had. While Linda enabled him, Willy could not help himself too keep ruining the good opportunities he had and turning them into some factious reality. At Willy`s funeral Biff comes to the realization that his father had all the wrong dreams and visions of success. Willy`s only dream was the fake “American Dream” that people believe will happen overnight. Willy`s failed attempts and happiness bonded into one and played a part into him creating this false reality and persona that he was the best salesman and that he was well loved by everyone around him.
Symbolism is a very important aspect to stories during the Dark Romantic time period. The symbols during that time period were designed to make the reader think more deeply about certain topics and themes in their works. Edgar Allen Poe, and Nathaniel Hawthorne use symbolism to transform their stories into the cornerstones of the Dark Romantic time period. Furthermore, Poe and Hawthorne’s stories exemplify the symbolism of the Dark Romantic time period better than “The Birthmark,” “The Minister 's Black Veil,” and “The Fall of the House of Usher.” “The Fall of the House of Usher” is one of the best Dark Romantic pieces for its use of symbolism. The stories use of symbolism extends from the house itself to even the atmosphere around the house, exemplify the style of the era.
Soon after the Allan family took upon Poe, Frances Allan passed away, leaving the young boy in John Allan’s care. John Allan was a cold business man while Edgar was not, he was more emotional, this led to many discrepancies between the two. Poe felt as if the Allan name was never quite belonged to him and that he did not fit the mold John Allan was trying to enforce into him. In one of Poe’s stories The Man in the Crowd the narrator is a chasing a man in the street, seeking for attention and comes to find out that the man has no interested in him; “... I persist in my pursuit of the stranger.
You couldn’t be on my side that long for nothing, could you? Ruth: Walter, please leave me alone. Walter: A man needs a woman to back him up…”(Hansberry 8 and 9). In this he is being rude and disrespectful to Ruth by assuming that she doesn’t care about him, their son, or the way they live anymore. Both characters in the stories fail to become rich and known.
To start lets state what's Romanticism. Romanticism values beliefs and emotions as more important than logic or facts. Involves the worship of nature. So, the romanticism is a genre steeped in complex emotions and expressions of individualism. Dark romanticism is distinguished from romanticism in its emphasis on human fallibility, sin and sometimes agony, in other words they are really pessimist, meanwhile romanticism believe in human goodness so they are optimist.
In the mind of Hawthorne, many people will make promises but won’t stick to them or will go back on their word. This can be seen as a darkness in human nature. Many humans do go back on what they said previously or can’t keep a promise. A lot of literature written during this time period reflects ideas of darkness in human