This paper will try to reconstruct the historical background regarding the “xenophobia” and the frontier poems in Tang and the rhetorical use of Non-Chinese in Chinese texts during the mid-imperial China. Then, by analyzing and comparing the rhetorical use of Non-Chinese in the frontier poems before and after the rebellion of An Lushan to explore to what extent the Tang intellectuals had increasing xenophobia after the rebellion of An Lushan. I shall argue that there was probably no growing xenophobia in Tang China after the rebellion of An Lushan. Xenophobia and the Frontier Poem in Tang China
The main theme that entangles itself in all of the source material is the idea of how governments should be run in such a powerful empire, such as Imperial Rome and the Han Dynasty. Starting with the first source, it is evident that the first Qin emperor believed that only the orthodox teachings should be tolerated, which meant that the works of the Five Classics and its teachings were to be extinguished. The next primary source serves as a supplement to explaining the fall of the Qin dynasty due to its warring ideas and Jia Yi argues that if Confucius teachings were implemented then the dynasty would have still been intact. The third source explains how the Qin dynasty was unjust in its equal appropriation of punishment against criminals regardless of motives or social class. Essentially, Dong Zhongshu believed that a dynasty could not be successful if it failed to establish a fair and righteous justice system for its citizens.
Compiled between the 5th and 4th centuries BC, the Zuo zhuan is considered to be a paramount text to the understanding of Chinese historiography. Along with the Gongyang zhuan, it is a detailed commentary on Confucius’s Chunqiu annals that cover the years 722 to 481 BC. The Confucian affiliation to the Chunqiu renders the work essential to the comprehension of early Chinese history, and the commentaries that followed serve to give further insight on the most important happenings of the time. However, especially within the Zuo zhuan, it is disputed among scholars of ancient Chinese texts whether or not the inclusion or omission of certain events, straying away from previous Confucian recording techniques, and narrative manipulation serve or
Unfortunately, West Africa was defeated by Europe in the 1400’s because they had not heard about the discovery of gunpowder yet. Still this day, no one knows how the secret of gunpowder got revealed and lingered so quickly. Many suggest that it had a lot to do with the Silk Road which was also discovered by China. The Silk Road also known as the Silk Route, was a trade route for countries throughout the Asian continent. Furthermore, one of the next inventions that gunpowder played a major role in is the gun.
As China’s most influential scholars, the reconciliation of both views is essential in understanding nineteenth and twentieth century China. As the father of modern literature, Lu Xun’s detailing of the everyday Chinese experience expresses the views of the average population during the era. One of China’s most prolific writers, Lu Xun’s satirical depiction of China in his short novella, The True Story of Ah Q, provides insight into Lu’s views on nationalism, revolution, and democracy in China. The protagonist, Ah Q, appears to hold a very symbolic name, specifically when focusing on the “Q,” as the most marked physical feature of the Chinese during the time was the queue required by the Manchu dynasty. In this way, the “true story” is representative of all of China.
The novel Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress challenges the concept of re-education and the aspects of the Chinese government by contrasting the Communist ideology to the dynamic character of the narrator, by using symbolism to complement the transformation of the major characters and by including the picaresque story of the Little Seamstress narrated by herself. The notion of re-education and Mao’s ideology are challenged by the development of individuality in the narrator. The narrator learns a lot about the world and builds his own moral system and set of ideals based on the books he reads: “Without him [Jean-Christophe] I would never have understood the splendor of taking free and independent action as an individual.” (Sijie 110). These words indicate that the narrator does not want to act as one of the many proletarians but he would rather have a unique distinguishable personality. The ideal world in the books, in contrast
Archeologists made the perilous journeys of Silk Road traders and began to uncover ancient manuscripts, all the while keeping their own record that very closely paralleled those which they discovered. Sir Aurel Stein, a foremost archeologist in the area, saw the Silk Road as a "… special meeting ground of Chinese civilization, introduced by trade and political penetration,
Knowing that 2015 marked the 70th anniversary of the bombing of Dresden during the Second World War immediately brought me back to the days which I delved into the book Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut for a course at Peking University, China when I was one of the two chosen students from Macao Polytechnic Institute to study there as an exchange student. It was not long when I was enlightened and became certain of my specialisation in literature－Psychoanalysis. In my preparation of a Master’s degree, I have studied widely around the topic Literature and Psychoanalysis. I hope to examine closely the complexity of the human psyche and its literary presentations and constructions. I am also interested in the analysis of the body and the psyche.
My research question is: Did New Culture Movement ruin Chinese traditional culture or not? There are some scholars who support the new culture movement. For example, scholars such as Lu xun who is one of the important writers in the new culture movement. He supports the new culture movement by writing in a new literature (bai hua wen).One of the famous book named “diary of madman” which write in a new style (pai hua wen) that represented a sign in new culture movement (Tang). In addition, Hu shi who is one of advocate new literary in new culture movement.
The independent development of history as a record of the past, a method for self-definition, and a means for virtue politics was invented by two historians from two sharply different cultures: Sima Qian from China and Herodotus from Greece. Interestingly, they are both interested in frontier regions, the local people there, and their customs. Through their discussions of the Chinese/non-Chinese, Greeks/non-Greeks, we can acquire some insights into ancient history. There are two things that Sima Qian’s Shiji and Herodotus’s histories have in common: a strong interest in frontier regions and foreign people and a great amount of knowledge about them; also, an attempt to understand “others” by understanding the the context of their culture and
Gabriella Estrada Mr.Stano AP World History October 7, 2015 An Empires Fight For Centralization Ancient China’s history is a colorful story that Mark Edward Lewis makes comes to life in “The Early Chinese Empires : Qin and Han”. In this book Lewis sets put an end to the false perceptions spread in western society of Ancient China by setting the record straight. Lewis explain presents a clear and obviously well researched explanation of why and how things happened in Ancient China during The Classical Age, through several key events and leaders. This book explores the underlying challenges of this period
America didn’t just start colonizing, America was fought for. Starting in 1765, members of American colonial society rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them and to create other laws affecting them without colonial representatives in the government. During the following decade, protests continued to escalate by colonists as in the Boston Tea Party in 1773, during which patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea from the Parliament-controlled and favored East India Company. The British responded by imposing laws on the colonists in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain, while other colonists, known as Loyalists, preferred to remain aligned to the British
I had an idea of the King Arthur legend, but studying it in class gave me an understanding of the importance of the work and its influence. After Arthur came Chaucer. I learned that Chaucer was the father of the English language; I experienced for the first time the writing of satire. Chaucer 's work addressed a lot of important issues, and I realized how a work can take a simple story and attack some many parts of a culture. I had my eyes opened to the power of literature.