Annotated Bibliography Marmot, M. (2005). Social determinants of health inequalities. The Lancet, 365, 1099 1104. This journal article illustrates that many countries have enormous disparities in health. To accomplish advancements in health systems, it is essential to strive to eradicate major fatal diseases and to manage poverty. Life expectancies are considered on a global level concerning age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, region as well as the level of education, resulting in alarming statistical data. The objective for enhanced health systems incorporates decreasing the rates of morality. The social gradient greatly contributes to social inequalities around the world. Social conditions, for example, the environment in …show more content…
Sir Michael Marmot put into perspective how serious social disparities are and how they influence health not only between countries but also, within countries. The issue is not medical care; in fact the United States spends the most on medical care. You would initially think the country in which spends the most on medical care must have higher health rates. Well, believe it or not, this is actually false, for instance, sixty-two countries had higher maternal health rates than the United States. This displays that a lack of medical care fundamentally is not the conflict, whereas social inequality is. Even when considering the death of adolescent men, most deaths are due to violence, accident, drug or alcohol use. Health is to a great extent affected depending on where you stand on the social hierarchy. He states that we have the knowledge and means yet poses the question of “Do we have the willpower?”. In essence, we all have to cooperate to eliminate or at least reduce the rates of disparity. The most important approach in accomplishing this is by a means of empowerment, and creation and fair living conditions for society. Social inequality affects children at a young age and has a lasting impact; there was a particular statistic that lower income parents correlate with high rates of socio-emotional difficulties in children, due to low interactions with children. Inequality begins to impost society early on and life and progress throughout an individuals
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In the article by A. Driscoll and N. G. Nagel, they explain how poverty affects children and parents. The authors show that children who live in poverty have a risk level to die before their first birthday. As well they show how it affects children in their education because their level of learning is much lower than others, who do not live in poverty. Parents are focused on their jobs, forgetting their children because the money they earn is not enough to support the family and they have to look for more than one job in order to survive, and nevertheless, having two jobs is not enough to be able to give their children a good education. Therefore, those children develop behaviors that are not appropriate, and consequently acquire a low level
In chapter 7 we read about social class and health inequalities and how the different types of social class have an impact on one in our society. In this chapter, we discussed and focused on many important topics such as social class, social structure, and socio-economic status. Readers gained a better knowledge on those topics and how it relates to health inequalities. One new fact I learned after reading this chapter is how an individual who has a good education and well-paying job can live longer when compared to one who doesn’t. This chapter once again like many other chapters read before in this course, talked about the inequalities between the rich and the poor.
This implies that disparities in health continue to exist despite the efforts of the health care systems to provide patients similar access to care, which according to Woolf, and Braveman (2011), suggests that disparities originate outside the formal health care setting. The authors concluded that environmental and social variables especially income and education are often the underlying causes of illnesses and are key to understanding health
The social determinants of health impact both chronic physical conditions and mental health. Key aspects of prevention include increasing physical activity, access to nutritious foods, ensuring adequate income and fostering social inclusion and social support. This creates opportunities to enhance protective factors and reduce risk factors related to aspects of mental and physical
1. Describe and discuss the social determinants associated with the case you have chosen. A large collection of evidence has been accumulating over the past two decades, revealing the impact that social factors have on health at both individual and population levels . This is not to say that medical has no impact on health outcomes, rather that evidence suggests medical care is not the only contributor when determining who is more vulnerable to becoming injured or ill .
Policy-makers can cooperate with a range of organizations, health practitioners, and government departments at all levels in order to develop health policy that seeks to reduce health inequalities effectively before they can manifest themselves in poor health outcomes. The medical model – while it will always be around, and while it arguably should always be around – is somewhat of a quick-fix, short-term approach to a very serious and pervasive public health issue. The social-ecological model, though, is a much more forward thinking, long-term, and sustainable approach to dealing with this public health issue. It looks to the root causes of the issue – all of the social and economic determinants of health discussed in part 1 – and attempts to solve the problem at that level. This approach is far more useful for reducing health inequalities.
Under this criteria, top health priorates included lack of effective and accessible services, lack of water and sanitation, and high rates of poverty leading to poor living and working conditions. This criteria addresses the crucial social and environment factors that are often not address by other criteria such as top cause of mortality. This type of criteria draws out the social inequalities and inequities of the health system and the multiple and complex social systems that often contribute to adverse health effects for those who are disadvantaged by socioeconomic factors such as poverty and poor living conditions (Moyer et al.,2014). Many of these factors have substainal implications for health with many developing health conditions due to their environment and inability to afford to better the situation (Moyer et al.,2014). Many do not have access to clean water or improved sanitation facilities with only 15% having access in 2015 (WHO,2018).
This essay aims to identify and evaluate the inequalities in health care in different areas of society, namely disability and gender. Firstly, it is important to understand what we mean by health inequalities. It is commonly understood that health inequality refers to unjust differences in the health status, usually preventable, between different groups, populations or individuals. The existence of such inequalities is attributed to the unequal distributions of social, environmental and economic conditions within societies. Such conditions determine the risk of individuals getting ill, their ability to prevent sickness, as well as opportunities to access to the right treatments.
Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Healthy People (2015), these factors underlie preventable disparities in health status and disease outcomes. Poor health outcomes are often the result of the interaction between individuals and their social and physical environment. Policies that result in changes to the social and physical environment can affect entire populations over extended periods of time, while simultaneously helping people to change individual-level behavior. Improving the conditions in which people are born, live, work, and age will ensure a healthier population, thereby improving national productivity, security, and prosperity through a healthier nation. The importance of social determinants of health is growing initiatives to address these determinants of health.
Low income families do not just get the title “poverty” branded onto them, but they have much more negative effects attached to the label. These families in the bottom third of the income group suffer immensely and this does not solely affect the family as a whole, but it affects each and every individual included. After several readings about how these families are affected, it is important to point out that children are the most unfortunate because of long-term damages. The long-term effects of children in low income families include developmental, psychological and emotional effects.
Social determinants of health depend on social, environmental and economic conditions in societies (EuroHealthNet, n.d.). These factors and conditions, together with the age, sex and hereditary factors of a person, are interlinked and influence the health status of the individual, because a person is born, grows, lives, works and ages in these conditions (Equity Action, 2010). The living and working conditions include agriculture and food production, education, work and environment, unemployment, water and sanitation, health care services and housing (Marmot, Health inequalities in the EU, 2013, p. 40). In addition, it is clear that equal access to good health is hard to achieve, and it can be done so, if disadvantages are assessed, and that necessary measures should be taken (Stegeman, Costongs, & Needle,
In western countries, an unprecedented economic growth occurred during the last century: society becomes richer, healthier and more equal. Nonetheless, socioeconomic inequality in health does not disappeared: rich continue to live longer, healthier and better than the poor, and these differences wider over time (Hernandez-Quevedo, Jones, Lopez-Nicolas, & Rice, 2006). Socioeconomic inequalities in health rely on the mechanisms that sort the social stratification of a society. Therefore, welfare state as an institutionalized system of solidarity that redistribute life chances and risks, and as a system of social stratification, plays a crucial role in the persistence of these inequalities in health. In this work the framework of the welfare
Social causation of disease is described as the origin of illness that results from social environment, social interactions, or social factors. On the other hand, biological factors are not the only cause of disease as social causation and presume that social factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), religion, and social networks have an effect on the severity of illness and mortality. The idea that social interaction and culture play a major role in the causation of disease has been present in social thought since the discussion of the interaction between politics and mortality. Social causes of disease can be divided into fundamental causes and proximate lifestyle causes ( Link & Phelan, 1995). Nevertheless, causes of illness can directly