The absorbance was taken at 532nm and 600nm and the MDA content was 232 computed by subtracting the absorbance at 600nm for the correction of unspecific 233 turbidity from that of 532nm. The concentration of MDA was expressed as nmol g-1 FW 234 of the sample and estimated using the extinction coefficient (ε) of 155 mM-1 cm-1. 235 2.11.1. Antioxidant enzyme assay 11 236 To determine the activities of SOD (EC 188.8.131.52), CAT (EC 184.108.40.206), POD (EC 237 220.127.116.11), APX (EC 18.104.22.168), GPX (EC 22.214.171.124) and GR (EC 126.96.36.199) fresh leaf tissue 238 was ground in liquid nitrogen and homogenized on ice bath in 3 ml of solution containing 239 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), 0.1 mM EDTA (Ethylene diamine tetra 240 acetate) and 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). For ascorbate peroxidase assay extraction 241 buffer was supplemented with 1.0 mM ascorbic acid.
Then percent yield was calculated to be 67.57%. The isolation of less product resulted from using less amount of acetanilide than 0.07g at the beginning of the experiment. In addition, the melting point of the product was measured to be 164.8-168.50c, which is in the range of the normal melting point of 4-bromoacentailide, 165-1690c. This confirmed the formation of 4-bromoacetanilide from the bromination of acetanilide. From the bromination of 0.05g aniline, 0.156g of the product was collected.
The water was free from organic matter like oil, silt, sugar, acidic material & chloride etc. as per Indian standard. D. Polypropylene Fiber Table 3. Properties of PP fiber Specific gravity (gr/cm3) 0.91 Tensile strength (MPa) 450 Length (mm) 12mm Elongation at failure (%) 15-25 Density (g/cc) 0.91 Heat Resistance (o C) <130 Aspect Ratio 300 Experimental work: In order to study the effects of PP fiber on the behavior of cement composites i.e. cement-mortar having ratio 1:4 in terms of compressive strength and split tensile strength, tests were carried out.
For this purpose, Moldflow Plastic Insight (MPI) software is used for the simulation of injection molding process. The number of simulation is based on the three level of L27 Taguchi Orthogonal Array (OA). The Minitab software is used to analyze the result where the S/N (signal-to-noise) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) is utilized to see the most significant factors contribute to shrinkage. The recommended setting of parameters for shrinkage was produced by the combination of A1, B1, C3, D3, and E1. That was the setting of melt temperature with 220°C, mold temperature with 58°C, packing pressure of 85MPa, packing time of 2.8second, and cooling time of 50second.
Table 3.1 Tensile Test Results Sample no Tensile Strength (N) 1 2222 2 2291 3 2473 4 2120 5 2548 6 2686 Fig 3.2 Graph for the tensile test results. From the results it is found that sample 6 shows the best result, that is the sample welded with 1600 rpm and 50 mm/min. B. Hardness Testing Hardness is a measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied. It is given as the resistance to indentation value for the joints. Brinell Hardness test is conducted according to ASTM E 10 standards.
In the case of monolayer graphene, the 2D band is a sharp single peak; while in the case of doubleor multi-layer graphenes, there are splitting generated either from the phonon branches or the electronic bands . The experimental data (Figure 5) shows indeed that the 2D band can be decomposed into four peaks (2L) and provides strong evidence in favor of multi-layer graphene as the major product. The ID/IG intensity ratio is widely used to assess the density of defects in graphite materials . The D band of No.5 sample is rather uniform and near the noise level, indicating the NG remains a high crystalline quality. It is noted that the ID/IG for all samples in this work is much larger than that of CVD-grown graphene .
L box apparatus 4. V Funnel Test: This test helps to measure the viscosity of the SCC, it consists of a V shaped apparatus with an opening at the bottom through which the concrete flows. The time taken by the concrete to empty the upper portion measures the viscosity of the mix. Fig. 3 V funnel apparatus 5.
Table 5.5: Comparison of Frequencies of Bridge S.No. Bridge Ambient vibration test Frequency Multi-degree Model Frequency Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode1 Mode 2 Mode 3 1 Bridge 1 3.44 5.48 7.95 2.72 3.42 8.77 2 Bridge 2 3.20 5.80 8.78 2.38 5.76 18.53 3 Bridge 3 3.74 4.6 5.74 2.38 4.48 10.43 4 Bridge 5 4.28 5.48 5.84 2.23 3.67 10.43 Frequency:
The Weibull distribution is used in this study to characterise the tensile behaviour of hydroentangled nonwovens when tested at different test lengths. Many research studies have been done (Realff et al., (1991), Gosh et al., (2004), Rengasamy et al., (2005), Triyakioglu et al., (2009), Pan et al., (2002), Shaha et al., (2011), Shao et al., (2013), Wang et al., (2014), Hashim et al., (2016) analysing the tensile failure mechanism of fibres and yarns using Weibull analysis. Some of these studies have analysed and validated the data to fit to two-parameter Weibull distribution. However, tensile behaviour of hydroentangled nonwovens as a function of test length has been hardly ever studied and the use of Weibull distributions to fit the fabric strength data is not available. Triyakioglu has recommended due to the destructive nature of testing involved in these studies of estimating the tensile strength at different test lengths and the small number of repetitions using one of the three methods: (i) linear regression, (ii) maximum likelihood, and (iii) moments.
The reduction causes the reinforcement strain at uncracked zone to be less than the reinforcement strain at the cracked sections, as shown in figure (2.28). (Allam, Shoukry, Rashad and Hassan, 2013) Figure (2.28): Mean and steel bar stress–strain relationship (Allam, Shoukry, Rashad and Hassan, 2013) At the end of the nineteenth century, in testing small concrete prisms reinforced with steel