Analysis of Galileo’s Letter to Grand-Duchess Christina During the time that Galileo wrote the letter to Grand-Duchess Christina, there was much debate about the orientation of the universe. There were two different theories of thought at this time. One was the Heliocentric Universe, which believed the sun was the center of the universe and the Earth orbits it. The second was the Ptolemaic or Earth-centered Universe, were the sun orbits the Earth. Galileo faced much opposition from the Catholic Church, and was repeatedly harassed and condemned by his contemporaries. The letter he wrote to Christina was to clearly state his view of mixing science and religion. He projected himself as a man that was only trying to expose the truth, but he was also trying to …show more content…
He points out that the Bible cannot be taken literally because sometimes it can be interpreted in different ways. The Bible was written for the common people and illiterate to understand, and to prove his point he mentions that the Bible gives God a body like ours while theologies believe God has no such features. He moves to his main point about who has the authority to determine what is true and untrue. He argues that what is scientifically proven will to understand the Bible true meaning. Galileo believes in the Bible and that God has supreme authority over the world, but he sees religion and science as two different things. It is not the purpose of the Bible to explain the physical world, it is there to save our souls. He makes three distinguishes: The Bible and Church have all matters of faith., if any scientific finding if proven to be true but is against the teachings of the Bible, then we have not found the true meaning of the Bible, and anything not proven that is against the Bible must be
He says that the bible is a metaphor but the pope still sees these ideals as a literal interpretation The church is opposed to this idea of science and the church due to it going against scripture. The Duchess and Galileo are secular thinkers opposing new scientific thoughts and religion together (Doc 4). Galileo was a Secular thinker who wrote to the secular leader. His intent was to prove that the church was wrong and wanted to convince the Grand Duchess that god supported science and the church as one (CAPP 3, Purpose). Galelios' Inquisition continues to show how the church is anti-science.
Galileo Galilei was an Italian astronomer who disagreed with the Roman Catholic theory of geocentrism. He was not a heretic because he was a Christian and had similar beliefs to the Roman Catholics, but he did not agree with the Church’s theory of the position and movement of Earth in the Solar System. Document A is an excerpt of a letter to Duchess Christina of Tuscany written by Galilei, counter-arguing the heresy claims. In the letter, Galileo wrote, “Can an opinion be heretical and yet have no concern with the salvation of souls?” Although he did not believe in the astronomical theory of the Church, he believed that his scientific thoughts should not interfere with his religious beliefs.
By using his eyes, Galileo confirmed the heliocentric theory and created his own in reply: the Copernican theory. His theory stated that the sun was at the center of the universe, with the earth and other planets rotating around it in elliptical paths and at uniform speeds. Copernicus had used Bacon’s implications that “seeing is believing.” He also theorized that the other planets were made of substances similar to those found on earth. These two ideas even furthered the notion that humans were not special to God because they inhabited an earth that looked like all the other planets.
Copernicus’ previous statement is continued with, “...although I know that the meditations of a philosopher are far removed from the judgement of the laity, because his endeavor is to seek out the truth in all things, so far as this is permitted by God to the human reason I still believe that one must avoid theories altogether foreign to orthodoxy.” (Doc 6.) Copernicus did not need validation from the Church for his ideas. He knew his scientific ideas could be proved without religion endorsing them. Another rationalist thinker, Francesco Petrarch, felt as if he should form opinions after looking at things rationally and from different perspectives.
Autumn Stern Galileo Trial Summary + Copernicus Write Up In the early 17th century, there was no doubt that the Catholic church held extreme power throughout Europe. They also held to the geocentric theory (all planets, heavenly bodies and the sun revolving around the earth) put forth by Ptolemy and Aristotle because of how neatly it could fit into the current teachings. Unlike this theory, however, Galileo enforced Copernicus’ heliocentric theory with inductive reasoning rather than deductive. Galileo made observations about the moons of Jupiter and their orbit around Jupiter, which he likened to a smaller version of their solar system.
Isaac Newton discovered the law of gravity. However, while following his discovery, he finds out that the solar system would be unstable because of the pulling of the planets against each other and believes that God is involved in creating stability. This fact clearly indicates that an individual must acquire insight of nature to understand science Therefore, from this perspective, it is clear that religion and science complement each
In Steven Shapin’s book, The Scientific Revolution, he described the massive scientific changes that occurred from the late 16th to the early 18th centuries. Shapin utilizes the scientists and their findings to demonstrate the changes that affected Western civilization. He describes his theory of the Scientific Revolution as he proves that the world has always had scientific advances. Steven Shapin states his thesis which influenced the modern world, that the Scientific Revolution did not happen during a single time period through the use of the three essential questions: What was known, How was it known, and What was the Knowledge for.
He realized that, while science and religion may be able to agree, the Church did not agree with science, and instead sided with a literal interpretation of the Bible. After he expressed his opinions, Galileo was forced to denounce them in an inquisition (EBD). The church believed Galileo to be going against faith, and put him on trial under threat of torture. This reaction to Galileo’s suggestions proves that the Church would not acknowledge the importance and truth to science, instead favoring their traditional view of the world.
For example, the New York Times Article “Vatican Science Panel Told by Pope: Galileo was Right” mentions, “Moving formally to rectify a wrong, Pope John Paul II acknowledged in a speech today that the Roman Catholic Church had erred in condemning Galileo 359 years ago for asserting that the Earth revolves around the Sun.” This excerpt states that Galileo’s theories about the sun centered universe was correct. The church admits to their mistake and have recognized the truth in Galileo’s beliefs. In addition, the article includes a comment form Pope John Paul, “This led them to unduly transpose into the realm of the doctrine of faith, a question which in fact pertained to scientific investigation.” This means that the Roman Catholic Church at the time was in the wrong and had interpreted the scriptures incorrectly.
Prior to the publication of Galileo Galilei’s (1564-1642) Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), the Congregation of the Index issued a public decree which condemned the heliocentric model along with any books supporting or seemingly supporting the tenets of the Copernican model. Consequently, Galileo, who was already in conflict with the church over letters he sent to the Grand Duchess Christina (1565-1637) and Benedetto Castelli (1578-1643) which depicted him as a supporter of the Copernican model, could no longer express his support or publish evidence supporting the Copernican model. The election of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini (1568-1644) as Pope Urban VIII in 1623, though, “put an end to Galileo’s silence” because he was
During Galileo's early childhood, he lived in Pisa, Italy. His father, Vincezio Galilei taught him how to play the lute. In 1572, at the age of 8 yrs, he was in the care of Muzio Tedaldi, his mother's relative, since his parents moved to Florence and needed to get settled therefore left him in Pisa. It wasn't until 2 years later that they would be rejoined in Florence. Although his father was always busy with writing, arguing, and debating about people's ideas and thoughts about music; just as he would when he grew up.
I do believe that Galileo, by definition, was a heretic. By definition, a heretic is someone who goes against the Roman Catholic Church's teachings. Galileo believed and taught the heliocentric theory, while the Church taught the geocentric theory. I think that the Church did agree with Galileo, but didn't want him to prove the Church wrong. They didn't want this because it would affect their power.
Copernicus developed the heliocentric theory which claimed that the earth revolved around the sun. This immediately challenged the authorities who believed the opposite. Galileo furthered Copernicus’ argument and promoted that the Bible, that God
In both Galileo’s and Mutis’ argumentations, it is discussed the counter-arguments derived from the Ptolemaic system of the world by considering the earth as a vessel in which everything that is contained moves along with the vessel itself. Despite that Mutis is limited to presenting in a general way the arguments –leaving them undeveloped-, the use of the cases that Galileo contemplates in the second day of his Dialogue reveals us that he had them in mind for his