Meed found that the gender roles were more fabricated by culture than anything else, that in Samoan societies women could be manly and aggressive and men could be feminine and caring. Facts such as this complicate the ideas of gender and sex
Androcentricity (the assumption that males are main actors of the society) ii. Gender insensitivity (ignoring sex as a variable) iii. Overgeneralization ( a sample is drawn from only one sex and then a generalised result for both the sexes is drawn) iv. Double standard (identical behaviour or situation is evaluated and analysed by different techniques) v. Sex appropriateness (assumption that certain behaviour patterns and characters are more appropriate for one sex than for the other) vi. Sexual dichotism ( another sub-aspect of double standard, it is when you treat both the sexes as two discrete biological and social groups irrespective of their overlapping characteristics)
Femininity is missed by women’s movement. While feminism succeeded to establish the fact that women are equally human to men, the fact that women are also women; that is uniquely feminine- has been lost (Denison, p. 89) Oppositely, postfeminism embrace the idea of ‘unique equality’ and all things feminine. The new focus is emphasize “femininity as a means of asserting power since the feminine is equal to the masculine even though it may look different” (p. 89). Postfeminism seems to embrace feminine and masculine characteristic and differences.
Communication can be either verbal or nonverbal. Nonverbal communication is more immediate, but more ambiguous than verbal communication. Men and women differ significantly in their propensity to use nonverbal communication, their skill in interpreting it and their means of signaling their meaning. Accordingly, understanding gender differences in nonverbal communication is important when dealing with the opposite sex. One of the reasons that men and women differ in their use of nonverbal communication is that their reasons for communicating are often different, according to John Gray, author of the best-seller "Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus.
Power relations Taking into consideration what had been said about representation of genders in The Big Bang Theory, I would like to discuss the relations of power between male and female characters. Although we can say that there are stereotypes about both men and women in this show, there is one fact that puts male characters in the privileged position over the female ones: the female characters always seem to be defined by their relationships with their male partners. For example, as I already mentioned, the character of Bernadette seems to be liberated from all the sexist and stereotypical views, but at the same time, she gets married to the most sexist characters, Howard Wolowitz, who before their marriage tried very hard to be a womanizer, seeing women purely as objects of pleasure, discriminating them based on their looks. As Rachel Redfern wrote: "Howard played the role of a disgusting, probably should be on a sex offender list somewhere, horny aerospace engineer. His goal was to get laid and so he lied to women, hired prostitutes, chased them down in a park, and was in general, completely repugnant for laughs".
Oakley (1985, P16.) suggests that sex is “the biological differences between male and female” whilst gender refers to “the social classification into ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’”. This definition of gender assists the concept that gender is a ‘continuous performance’ and the discourse surrounding gender identity is continued. Gender is considered a performance because it only exists through the actions you take and the image you create. The gender performances come from stereotypes which make up the ‘male and female’ genders and make them ‘masculine and feminine’. Through this, gender is a ‘scripted’ performance which ensures that people conform to the norms of society and what society deems appropriate for each sex and considers this the correct way to perform gender.
Although societies differ in the specific task they assign to the two sexes (male and female), all societies allocate adult roles on the basis of sex and anticipate this allocation in the socialization of their children. Not only are boys and girls expected to acquire sex-specific self-concepts and personality attributes, to be masculine or feminine as defined by that particular culture (Barry, Bacon and Child, 1957. P.354). The process by which by which a society thus transmutes male and female into masculine and feminine is known as the process of sex
4.3 Theory of difference The difference theory assumes that well prevails a fundamental difference between the sexes being husband and wife. The focus of difference theory therefore is not the abolition of these differences, but rather whose recognition (Heintz, B., 1993, p 21). Wesely (2000) is highlighting that the basis of the difference theory assumes that gender is not only occupied biologically, but also a strong social category belongs (Wesely, 2000, p.21).
However, in today’s society typically the psychological definition of the term androgynous is the one frequently utilized to explain exactly what androgynous is. The term androgynous also can refer to an individual’s sexual orientation; for example, an individual who is
The fact that gender-differentiated socialization exists in society cannot be disputed. Equally, to find that differences do emerge with regard to speaking styles between men and women is not surprising. However, by failing to associate gender arrangements to the power arrangements that they promote and enforce is naïve in an intellectual way. Considering the highly integrated lives of the American men and women, to assign full-fledged cultural status to patterns that emerge out of socialization is of doubtful validity. Besides, Tannen moves from the initial premise that boys and girls grow up in two distinct cultures, which is a disputed fact, to the questionable claim that problems with communication between adult males and females are equivalent to other types of cross-cultural miscommunication.
Rosemary Okumu PSYC 1113 – Section 11/18 /2016 Gender Gender is the state of being male or female. Male are thought to be adventurous, aggressive, strong whereas females are to be affectionate, attractive, shy and sexy. While I highly identify with my feminine gender characteristics, at times l possess masculine characteristics like confidence, ambition, and sometimes aggression.